What happens if a supercomputer mines bitcoin? - Quora

I want to optimize your program on a ppc64el-supercomputer with lots of Tesla V100-SXM2 GPUs for free

I've been working on a program to automatically adjust hyperparameters in a given range. That is things like number of neurons, number of layers etc. For this, I want to do this on real programs with real data that is actually useful. I've tried things like DeepSpeech, but I have immense problems getting it to work on a ppc64el-environment with some compiled dependencies. This will then be made into a paper.
So, I'd like to offer the following. If you have an application you'd like to be trained on a high performance computing cluster with hundreds of Tesla V100-SXM2 GPUS, for free!, than you can write me your suggestions here.
The following requirements must be met though:
- It has to be able to run on ppc64el Linux natively (i.e. you compiled it for it or it's only python and bash)
- It has to be free software (and legal, of course)
- No bitcoin mining or things like that
- Has to be a real world application with lots of data that is either freely accessible or you can give me a download link for
- The program needs to accept the parameters via a cli (i.e. "program.py --layers=10")
- There has to be a loss function that can be minimized (e.g. the number of errors made, or quadratic loss or whatever, only thing that matters is one number and lower meaning better)
- The result needs to be publically available, too.
I have as much parallel computing time as we need and can automatically try as many combination as we want until we have a good result. RAM is not an issue, I have about 440GB RAM on a node, and more than 30 nodes with 6 Teslas each.
I'd really be interested in good suggestions, from which I will chose one or maybe two. You'll also get fancy graphs of the GPU workload over time, and of the hyperparameter sets tried out. Anyone interested?
submitted by AskethMe to artificial [link] [comments]

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies

TOP 3 Anonymous Cryptocurrencies
Last year Bitfury’s multidisciplinary Blockchain specialists announced the possibility of revealing the identities of more than 16% of all owners of Bitcoin addresses. Several years ago, a team of CryptoLux developers, having conducted a study of transaction privacy on the Bitcoin network, concluded that 60% of all addresses can be deanonymized. Summarizing all this, it’s worth highlighting three existing methods that can successfully deanonymize private transactions.

Clustering

The easiest way to cluster (link Bitcoin addresses) is by analyzing transactional networks. In other words, this is a method that allows finding several inputs combined in one transaction. The second clustering method is “distribution analysis”. It allows calculation the percentage of cryptocurrency at the certain address that comes from another specific address and it becomes clear whether these addresses are connected by one direct transaction or a chain of transactions or not.

Graph analysis

It consists of quantitative and temporal analyzes. Quantitative analysis studies not certain transactions, but amounts. Time analysis tracks specific periods.

Memory Pool Method

When a transaction is made through the user’s wallet, the input nodes send information about the transaction to the Blockchain network. The purpose of this method is to identify the set of input nodes through the wallet and the user. In this case, the IP address of the client can be associated with its transactions. There are certain private cryptocurrency-leaders which are popular and trusted among users. Using one feature-privacy, they have different ways of functioning.

Basic principles of work: anonymous cryptocurrencies (Monero, Dash, Zcash)

Monero

The platform focuses on privacy and decentralization. The coin uses three levels of protection:
• Ring signatures, that hide the origin of the sender by mixing the user’s address with the addresses of other group members. • Ring confidential transactions, which hide the amount of the transaction. • Stealth addresses, that allow a user to hide the recipient’s address.
Such way guarantees the privacy of the sender and the recipient. Monero can be bought on Poloniex, Bitfinex, Livecoin, and Kraken crypto exchanges. It is possible to store Monero via an online wallet. More secure is its computer wallet. Due to its privacy, the popularity of the coin is expected to grow, so it makes sense to add a coin to an investment portfolio.
Advantages
• Increased privacy. Cryptocurrency is suitable for those who are afraid of deanonymizing network transactions. • Unlimited and difficult mining. • It takes less time to find blocks. • Resistance to the centralization of mining capacities.
Disadvantages
• Resources. All currency protection technologies require impressive machine performance for normal operation. The Monero block size is constantly growing, and this requires additional resources of network participants. • The popularity in the dark web leads to problems in working with regulatory authorities, exchanges often delist it. Speaking of reputation, Monero’s reputation is far from the best. The coin is often used on the dark web as payment for various illegal services. It happens to almost all crypto coins that provide privacy. • Large transaction sizes. Since Monero Blockchain is five times larger than the Bitcoin Blockchain in terms of one transaction. • Problems with scalability.

Dash

The Dash platform is a classic decentralized Blockchain-based payment system and the most technologically advanced cryptocurrency. It implements multi-off-chain money transfers without loss of reliability and overall security of the Blockchain. Its confidentiality is rather an additional option that can be used optionally. In the case of anonymity, it is possible to send a hidden transaction, but at a more expensive cost, which also requires additional time. Dash developed a hashing algorithm with eleven cryptographic functions-X 11 for the first time. The coin developers have released apps for other platforms. Today it is possible to use Dash for IOS, Zeal for Linux, LovelyDocs for Android and Velocity for Windows.
As well known, the CoinJoin is an anonymization method for crypto transactions, which is used by Dash as an improved version called the PrivateSend. Its mixing sessions are limited to 1,000 DASH for each session and will require multiple mixing sessions to anonymize a large amount of money.
Advantages
• High transaction speed. It is achieved via InstantX technology, which enables the confirmation of operations in less than 4 seconds. • Law transaction fees. • Energy consumption. Unlike Monero, it does not require a lot of power or high commission costs.
Disadvantages
• “Transparency” of the network. Without triggering the “mixing” mechanism, the directions of transactions and their balances are publicly visible to everyone. • Lack of proper cryptographic technologies that provide privacy, but can provide a sufficiently high level of protection. • Transaction visibility to the founders and the team.

Zcash

An open-source decentralized cryptocurrency that provides users with maximum privacy. Zcash is the first private cryptocurrency, using cryptographic protocol zk-SNARKS, a zero-knowledge security layer. It allows users to make hidden and open transactions.
Mathematically guaranteed privacy is something cryptocurrency can not be proud of. This fact makes the currency specific. All Zcash coins are identical, it means that interchangeable coins do not contain information about past use created. In this regard, the connection of coins with their history on the Blockchain is broken, which makes them universal and identical to each other. Zcash blocks are generated 4 times faster than Bitcoin. The currency trades on Huobi, Bitfinex and Binance exchanges, and after purchase, it can be stored on the exchange’s internal wallet, as well as transferred to Jaxx, Cryptonator and Coinomi multi-currency wallets. Coins can also be stored on hardware wallets like Ledger and Trezor.
Advantages
• Privacy. Since no information except the time stamp, is recorded in the Blockchain, transactions cannot be tracked, and the identity of the sender and recipient is almost impossible to establish. • Interchangeability. Due to interchangeability, all coins have a “clean” history. This means that it is practically impossible to determine which transactions coin was used. • Security. Lack of information about user keys, which protects user wallets and the network.Mining energy efficiency. Zcash mining hardware consumes less electricity than Bitcoin mining ASICs. • The difficulty of mining. Zcash is beneficial for those who want to get coins for block creation. Bitcoin mining becomes more and more complicated, so miners cannot earn enough money via their computers with high capacity.
Disadvantages
• 6 users can decide to leave the transferred data completely open. • It takes a lot of calculations to complete a transaction. • Insecurity. There are fears that the system could be hacked, or users may accidentally open the data. • Legally ZCash is supported only by Linux, however, it provides users with wallets for other platforms: Jaxx, Ledger, Trezor, Trust, Zecwallet, Ibitcome, Exodus, Guarda, Coinomi, Cobowallet, and Bitgo.
Private cryptocurrencies are necessary for anyone who values the privacy and confidentiality of financial transactions. Privacy can generate more value, than danger, as Eric Hughes says: “Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. Privacy is not secrecy. A private matter is something one doesn’t want the whole world to know, but a secret matter is something one doesn’t want anybody to know. Privacy is the power to selectively reveal oneself to the world”.
submitted by Stealthex_io to StealthEX [link] [comments]

The Exhaustive EOS FAQ

The Exhaustive EOS FAQ

 
With the large number of new readers coming to this sub we need to make information easy to access so those readers can make informed decisions. We all know there is an unusually large amount of Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt (FUD) surrounding EOS. Frankly, when clear evidence is provided it’s not that difficult to see EOS for the extremely valuable project it is. This post hopes to begin to put an end to all the misinformation by doing the following:  
  • Giving a clear and concise answer to the most frequently asked questions in regards to EOS.
  • Giving a more in-depth answer for those who want to read more.
  • Allowing readers to make informed decisions by making credible information easy to access.
 
As EOS climbs the ranks we need to recognise there are going to be a lot of skeptical readers coming over and posting their questions. Sometimes they will be irrational, hostile and often just looking for a reaction. We should make it our responsibility to welcome everyone and refrain from responding emotionally to provocative posts, instead providing factual and rational answers.
I will add to this post as and when I can, if you have any ideas or spot any mistakes let me know and I'll get them fixed ASAP. Im planning to add a bit on the team, centralisation and DPOS, governance and EOS VC shortly but please let me hear your suggestions!
 

FAQ

1. How do you registeclaim your EOS tokens before June 2018?

 
Answer courtesy of endless. If you have not done so, you will need to create a new pair of EOS public and private keys and register them with an Ethereum address. This only needs to be done once.
On or around June 1, 2018 all EOS Tokens will become frozen and non-transferable on the Ethereum blockchain. Not long after, I suspect that EOS community members will create a snapshot of token balances that carry over onto a new community generated and selected EOS blockchain. block.one will not be launching EOS blockchains or operating any of their nodes. Additionally, this is a community subreddit unaffiliated in an official capacity with block.one
Method #1: MetaMask (recommended)
Video guide: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8K1Q5hX_4-o
steemit tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@ash/full-walkthrough-how-to-join-eos-ico
Method #2: MyEtherWallet
steemit tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@sandwich/contributing-to-eos-token-sale-with-myetherwallet-and-contract-inner-workings
Method #3: Exodus Wallet
Official website tutorial: http://support.exodus.io/article/65-i-ve-received-eos-tokens-in-exodus-how-do-i-register-them
Important note courtesy of dskvry bka Sandwich, the author of Method #2's steemit tutorial:
claimAll will not work for most users. When you get to the claim step, please use the following tutorial: https://steemit.com/eos/@koyn/minimizing-the-cost-of-gas-when-claiming-eos-using-myetherwallet
Did you buy your EOS tokens on an exchange? (Courtesy of IQOptionCoin)
REMEMBER YOU ONLY NEED TO REGISTER YOUR TOKENS IF YOU BOUGHT THEM ON AN EXCHANGE. YOU DON'T NEED TO CLAIM THEM.
  1. Go to the EOS website https://eos.io
  2. Scroll down and select "GET EOS"
  3. Tick all the required boxes and click "Continue"
  4. Scroll down and click "Register"
  5. Select Metamask, MyEtherWallet, or Ethereum Wallet
  6. Follow the guide.
  7. Remember that the reason you need to register your Ethereum ERC-20 address is to include your EOS tokens in order for the balance of your EOS Tokens to be included in the Snapshot if a Snapshot is created, you must register your Ethereum address with an EOS public key. The EOS snapshot will take place prior to the 1 June 2018. After this point your ERC-20 EOS tokens will be frozen. And you will be issued EOS tokens on the EOS blockchain.
So PLEASE REGISTER your Ethereum address NOW, don't forget about it, or plan on doing it some time in the near future.
There are a lot of submissions about this in /eos, so rather than making a new one please reply to this thread with any questions you may have. Don't forget to join the EOS mailing list: https://eos.io/#subscribe and join the EOS community on your platform(s) of choice: Telegram, Discord and/or Facebook.
And remember, if anyone instructs you to transfer ETH to an EOS contract address that doesn't match the address found on https://eos.io you are being scammed.
 

Sources:

How to registeclaim your EOS tokens before June 2018 by endless
Official EOS FAQ
 

2. How will the token the ERC-20 EOS tokens be transferred to the native blockchain?

 

Quick answer:

There isn't one! Read the long answer then read it again, registering your Ethereum wallet is mandatory!
 

Long answer:

Within 23 hours after the end of the final period on June 1, 2018 at 22:59:59 UTC, all EOS Tokens will become fixed (ie. frozen) and will become non-transferrable on the Ethereum blockchain.
In order to ensure your tokens are transferred over to the native blockchain you must register your Ethereum address with an EOS public key, if you do not you will lose all your tokens! I am not going to link any tutorials as there are many that can be found by searching Google and YouTube.
block.one is helping with the development of snapshot software that can be used to capture the EOS token balance and registered EOS public key of wallets on the Ethereum blockchain. It is then down to the community to create the snapshot. This snapshot can be used when generating a genesis block for a blockchain implementing eos.io software. block.one will not be launching EOS blockchains or operating any of their nodes.
 
Exchange Support
Some exchanges have announced that they will support the token swap. Although using this method will undoubtedly be much simpler than registering the tokens yourself it also comes with its pitfalls.
  • It is highly likely there are going to be multiple networks running on the eos.io software that use the snapshot. It is highly unlikely that exchanges will support them all.
  • It is highly likely that exchanges will not support airdrops that use the snapshot.
Exchanges that have announced support for the token swap include:
 

Sources:

EOS.io
 

3. What does EOS aim to achieve?

 

Quick answer:

EOS.IO software is aiming to provide a decentralized operating system which can support thousands of industrial scale DApps by enabling vertical and horizontal scaling.
 

Long answer:

EOS.IO is software that introduces a blockchain architecture designed to enable vertical and horizontal scaling of decentralized applications. This is achieved through an operating system-like construct upon which applications can be built. The software provides accounts, authentication, databases, asynchronous communication and the scheduling of applications across multiple CPU cores and/or clusters. The resulting technology is a blockchain architecture that has the potential to scale to millions of transactions per second, eliminates user fees and allows for quick and easy deployment of decentralized applications.
 

Sources:

Official EOS FAQ
 

4. Who are the key team figures behind EOS?

 
  • CEO Brendan Blumer - Founder of ii5 (1group) and okay.com. He has been in the blockchain industry since 2014 and started selling virtual assets at the age of 15. Brenden can be found on the Forbes Cypto Rich List. Brendan can be found on Twitter.
  • CTO Dan Larimer - Dan's the visionary industry leader who built BitShares, Graphene and Steemit as well as the increasingly popular Proof of Stake Governance and Decentralised Autonomous Organization Concept. He states his mission in life is “to find free market solutions to secure life, liberty, and property for all.”. Dan can also be found on the Forbes Cypto Rich List. Dan can be found on Twitter and Medium.
  • Partner Ian Grigg - Financial cryptographer who's been building cryptographic ledger platforms for 2+ decades. Inventor of the Ricardian Contract and Triple-Entry Accounting.
 

Sources:

Forbes Crypto Rich List
 

5. Where can the latest EOS news be found?

 
Official:
Community:
Developers:
 

6. Which consensus mechanism does EOS use and what are Block Producers?

 

Quick answer:

Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS) with Byzantine Fault Tolerance. Block Producers (BPs) produce the blocks of the blockchain and are elected by token holders that vote for them. BPs will earn block rewards for their service, these block rewards come in the form of EOS tokens produced by token inflation.
 

Long answer:

Taken from the EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2:
“EOS.IO software utilizes the only known decentralized consensus algorithm proven capable of meeting the performance requirements of applications on the blockchain, Delegated Proof of Stake (DPOS). Under this algorithm, those who hold tokens on a blockchain adopting the EOS.IO software may select block producers through a continuous approval voting system. Anyone may choose to participate in block production and will be given an opportunity to produce blocks, provided they can persuade token holders to vote for them.
The EOS.IO software enables blocks to be produced exactly every 0.5 second and exactly one producer is authorized to produce a block at any given point in time. If the block is not produced at the scheduled time, then the block for that time slot is skipped. When one or more blocks are skipped, there is a 0.5 or more second gap in the blockchain.
Using the EOS.IO software, blocks are produced in rounds of 126 (6 blocks each, times 21 producers). At the start of each round 21 unique block producers are chosen by preference of votes cast by token holders. The selected producers are scheduled in an order agreed upon by 15 or more producers.
Byzantine Fault Tolerance is added to traditional DPOS by allowing all producers to sign all blocks so long as no producer signs two blocks with the same timestamp or the same block height. Once 15 producers have signed a block the block is deemed irreversible. Any byzantine producer would have to generate cryptographic evidence of their treason by signing two blocks with the same timestamp or blockheight. Under this model a irreversible consensus should be reachable within 1 second."
 

7. How does the voting process work?

 
The voting process will begin once the Block Producer community releases a joint statement ensuring that it is safe to import private keys and vote.
Broadly speaking there will be two methods of voting:
  1. Command Line Interface (CLI) tools
  2. Web portals
EOS Canada has created eosc, a CLI tool that supports Block Producer voting. Other Block Producer candidates such as LibertyBlock are a releasing web portal that will be ready for main net launch. There will be many more options over the coming weeks, please make sure you are always using a service from a trusted entity.
Remember: Do not import your private key until you have seen a joint statement released from at least five Block Producers that you trust which states when it is safe to do so. Ignoring this warning could result in tokens lost.
 

8. What makes EOS a good investment?

 
  • Team - EOS is spearheaded by the visionary that brought us the hugely successful Bitshares and Steem - arguably with two projects already under his belt there is no one more accomplished in the space.
  • Funding - EOS is one of the best funded projects in the space. The block.one team has committed $1B to investing in funds that grow the EOS echo system. EOS VC funds are managed by venture leaders distributed around the world to insure founders in all markets have the ability to work directly with local investors. Incentives such as the EOS hackathon are also in place with $1,500,000 USD in Prizes Across 4 Events.
  • Community Focus - The team is aware that the a projects success depends almost entirely on its adoption. For this reason there has been a huge push to develop a strong world wide community. There is already a surplus number of block producers that have registered their interest and started to ready themselves for the launch and incentives the EOS hackathon are being used to grow the community. A index of projects using EOS can be found at https://eosindex.io/posts.
  • Technical Advantages - See point 9!
 

9. What are the unique selling points of EOS?

 
  • Scaleability
    • Potential to scale to millions of transactions per second
    • Inter-blockchain communication
    • Separates authentication from execution
  • Flexibility
    • Freeze and fix broken applications
    • Generalised role based permissions
    • Web Assembly
  • Usability
    • Elimination of transaction fees
    • True user accounts with usernames, passwords and account recovery (no more having to remember long cryptographic keys)
    • Web toolkit for interface development
 

Sources:

eos.io
EOS Whitepaper
 

10. Is there currently a working product?

 

Quick answer:

This depends entirely on your definition of working product. If a fully featured developer release meets your definition then yes!. Otherwise the public release will be June 2018.
 

Long answer:

EOS differs from other projects in that it aims to deliver a fully featured version of the software on launch. The Dawn 3.0 RC1 feature complete pre-release became available on April 5th. This version has all the features of the final release that is due June 2018. Further development will involve preparing the final system contract which implements all of the staking, voting, and governance mechanics. The common notion that there is no viewable code published is wrong and the initial Dawn 1.0 release has been available from September 14th 2017.
 
EOSIO V1 - June 2nd 2018
Dawn 3.0 RC1 - April 5th 2018
Dawn 3.0 Alpha - January 23rd 2018
Dawn 2.0 - December 4th 2017
Dawn 1.0 - September 14th 2017
 

Sources:

 

11. EOS is an ERC-20 token, how can it possibly be a competitor to other platforms?

 

Quick answer:

The ERC-20 token is used only for raising funds during the token distribution; all tokens will be transferred to the native blockchain once launched.
 

Long answer:

EOS team has clearly stated their reason for choosing the Ethereum network when they described the rationale behind the ICO model. Specifically, the ICO should be a fair and auditable process, with as little trust required as possible. If you believe that an ICO should be fair, auditable, and trustless, you have no choice but to use a decentralized smart contract blockchain to run the ICO, the largest, and by-far most popular of which is Ethereum. Since EOS is intended to be a major competitor for Ethereum, some have seen this as a hypocritical choice. - Stolen from trogdor on Steam (I couldn’t word it any better myself).  

Sources:

The EOS ico for dummies by trogdor
Official EOS FAQ
 

12. Why do the eos.io T&C’s say the ERC-20 token has no value?

 
The EOS T&C’s famously state:
"The EOS Tokens do not have any rights, uses, purpose, attributes, functionalities or features, express or implied, including, without limitation, any uses, purpose, attributes, functionalities or features on the EOS Platform."
 

Quick answer:

This is legal wording to avoid all the legal complications in this emerging space, block.one do not want to find themselves in a lawsuit as we are seeing with an increasing amount of other ICOs. Most notably Tezos (links below).
 

Long answer:

This all comes down to legal issues. Anyone who’s been into crypto for 5 minuets knows that government bodies such as the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) are now paying attention to crypto in a big way. This legal wording is to avoid all the legal complications in this emerging space, block.one do not want to find themselves in a lawsuit as we are seeing with an increasing amount of other ICOs. Many token creators that launched ICOs are now in deep water for selling unregistered securities.
 
A filing from the Tezos lawsuit:
"In sum, Defendants capitalized on the recent enthusiasm for blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies to raise funds through the ICO, illegally sold unqualified and unregistered securities, used a Swiss-based entity in an unsuccessful attempt to evade U.S. securities laws, and are now admittedly engaged in the conversion, selling, and possible dissipation of the proceeds that they collected from the Class through their unregistered offering."
 
To ensure EOS tokens are not classed as a unregistered security block.one has made it clear that they are creating the EOS software only and won’t launching a public blockchain themselves. This task is left down to the community, or more precisely, the Block Producers (BPs). The following disclaimer is seen after posts from block.one:
 
"block.one is a software company and is producing the EOS.IO software as free, open source software. This software may enable those who deploy it to launch a blockchain or decentralized applications with the features described above. block.one will not be launching a public blockchain based on the EOS.IO software. It will be the sole responsibility of third parties and the community and those who wish to become block producers to implement the features and/or provide the services described above as they see fit. block.one does not guarantee that anyone will implement such features or provide such services or that the EOS.IO software will be adopted and deployed in any way.”
 
It is expected that many blockchains using eos.io software will emerge. To ensure DAPPs are created on an ecosystem that aligns with the interests of block.one a $1bn fund will be has been created to incentivise projects to use this blockchain.
 

Sources:

EOS.io FAQ Great video on this topic by The Awakenment EOS $1bn Fund Announcement Article on the Tezos lawsuit Article on the Gigawatt lawsuit An official block.one post featuring disclaimer
 

13. Why is the token distribution one year long?

 
Official statement from block.one:
“A lot of token distributions only allow a small amount of people to participate. The EOS Token distribution structure was created to provide a sufficient period of time for people to participate if they so choose, as well as give people the opportunity to see the development of the EOS.IO Software prior to making a decision to purchase EOS Tokens.”
 
It is also worth noting that block.one had no knowledge how much the the token distribution would raise as it is determined by the free market and the length of the token distribution is coded into the Ethereum smart contract, which cannot be changed.
 

Sources:

EOS.io FAQ
 

14. Where is the money going from the token distribution?

 

Quick answer:

Funding for the project was raised before EOS was announced, the additional money raised from the token distribution is largely going to fund projects on EOS.
 

Long answer:

A large portion of the money raised is getting put back into the community to incentivise projects using eos.io software. block.one raised all the money they needed to develop the software before the ERC-20 tokens went on sale. There are some conspiracies that block.one are pumping the price of EOS using the funds raised. The good thing about blockchain is you can trace all the transactions, which show nothing of the sort. Not only this but the EOS team are going to have an independent audit after the funding is complete for piece of mind.
 
From eos.io FAQ:
“block.one intends to engage an independent third party auditor who will release an independent audit report providing further assurances that block.one has not purchased EOS Tokens during the EOS Token distribution period or traded EOS Tokens (including using proceeds from the EOS Token distribution for these purposes). This report will be made available to the public on the eos.io website.”
 

Sources:

EOS.io FAQ EOS $1bn Fund Announcement
 

15. Who's using EOS?

 
With 2 months from launch left there is a vibrant community forming around EOS. Some of the most notable projects that EOS software will support are:
A more complete list of EOS projects can be found at eosindex.io.
 

16. Dan left his previous projects, will he leave EOS?

 

Quick answer:

When EOS has been created Dan will move onto creating projects for EOS with block.one.
 

Long answer:

When a blockchain project has gained momentum and a strong community has formed the project takes on a life of its own and the communities often have ideas that differ from the creators. As we have seen with the Bitcoin and Ethereum hark forks you cant pivot a community too much in a different direction, especially if its changing the fundamentals of the blockchain. Instead of acting like a tyrant Dan has let the communities do what they want and gone a different way. Both the Bitshares and Steem were left in a great position and with Dans help turned out to be two of the most successful blockchain projects to date. Some would argue the most successful projects that are actually useable and have a real use case.
What Dan does best is build the architecture and show whats possible. Anyone can then go on to do the upgrades. He is creating EOS to build his future projects upon it. He has stated he loves working at block.one with Brendan and the team and there is far too much momentum behind EOS for him to possibly leave.
 

Sources:

Dans future beyond EOS
Why Dan left Bitshares
Why Dan left Steem
 

17. Is EOS susceptible to DDoS attacks?

 
No one could have better knowledge on this subject than our Block Producer candidates, I have chosen to look to EOS New York for this answer:
"DDoS'ing a block producing is not as simple as knowing their IP address and hitting "go". We have distributed systems engineers in each of our candidate groups that have worked to defend DDoS systems in their careers. Infrastructure can be built in a way to minimize the exposure of the Block Producing node itself and to prevent a DDoS attack. We haven't published our full architecture yet but let's take a look at fellow candidate EOSphere to see what we mean. As for the launch of the network, we are assuming there will be attacks on the network as we launch. It is being built into the network launch plans. I will reach out to our engineers to get a more detailed answer for you. What also must be considered is that there will be 121 total producing and non-producing nodes on the network. To DDoS all 121 which are located all around the world with different security configurations at the exact same time would be a monumental achievement."
 

Sources:

eosnewyork on DDoS attackd
EOSSphere Architecture
 

18. If block producers can alter code how do we know they will not do so maliciously?

 

Quick answer:

  • Block producers are voted in by stake holders.
  • Changes to the protocol, constitution or other updates are proposed to the community by block producers.
  • Changes takes 2 to 3 months due to the fact block producers must maintain 15/21 approval for a set amount of time while for changes to be processed.
  • To ensure bad actors can be identified and expelled the block.one backed community will not back an open-entry system built around anonymous participation.
 

Long answer:

For this question we must understand the following.
  • Governance and why it is used.
  • The process of upgrading the protocol, constitution & other updates.
  • Dan’s view on open-entry systems built around anonymous participation.
 
Governance
Cryptography can only be used to prove logical consistency. It cannot be used to make subjective judgment calls, determine right or wrong, or even identify truth or falsehood (outside of consistency). We need humans to perform these tasks and therefore we need governance!
Governance is the process by which people in a community:
  1. Reach consensus on subjective matters of collective action that cannot be captured entirely by software algorithms;
  2. Carry out the decisions they reach; and
  3. Alter the governance rules themselves via Constitutional amendments.
Embedded into the EOS.IO software is the election of block producers. Before any change can be made to the blockchain these block producers must approve it. If the block producers refuse to make changes desired by the token holders then they can be voted out. If the block producers make changes without permission of the token holders then all other non-producing full-node validators (exchanges, etc) will reject the change.
 
Upgrade process
The EOS.IO software defines the following process by which the protocol, as defined by the canonical source code and its constitution, can be updated:
  1. Block producers propose a change to the constitution and obtains 15/21 approval.
  2. Block producers maintain 15/21 approval of the new constitution for 30 consecutive days.
  3. All users are required to indicate acceptance of the new constitution as a condition of future transactions being processed.
  4. Block producers adopt changes to the source code to reflect the change in the constitution and propose it to the blockchain using the hash of the new constitution.
  5. Block producers maintain 15/21 approval of the new code for 30 consecutive days.
  6. Changes to the code take effect 7 days later, giving all non-producing full nodes 1 week to upgrade after ratification of the source code.
  7. All nodes that do not upgrade to the new code shut down automatically.
By default, configuration of the EOS.IO software, the process of updating the blockchain to add new features takes 2 to 3 months, while updates to fix non-critical bugs that do not require changes to the constitution can take 1 to 2 months.
 
Open-entry systems built around anonymous participation
To ensure bad actors can be identified and expelled the block.one backed community will not back an open-entry system built around anonymous participation.
Dan's quote:
"The only way to maintain the integrity of a community is for the community to have control over its own composition. This means that open-entry systems built around anonymous participation will have no means expelling bad actors and will eventually succumb to profit-driven corruption. You cannot use stake as a proxy for goodness whether that stake is held in a bond or a shareholder’s vote. Goodness is subjective and it is up to each community to define what values they hold as good and to actively expel people they hold has bad.
The community I want to participate in will expel the rent-seeking vote-buyers and reward those who use their elected broadcasting power for the benefit of all community members rather than special interest groups (such as vote-buyers). I have faith that such a community will be far more competitive in a market competition for mindshare than one that elects vote buyers."
 

Sources:

The Limits of Crypto-economic Governance
EOS.IO Technical White Paper v2
 

19. What is the most secure way to generate EOS key pairs?

 
Block producer candidates EOS Cafe and EOS New York have come forward to help the community with this topic.
The block producer candidate eosnewyork has kindly posted a tutorial on steemit detailing the steps that need to be taken to generate key pairs using the official code on the EOS.IO Github.
The block producer candidate eoscafe has gone a step further and released an Offline EOS Key Generator application complete with GUI for Windows, Linux & Mac. Not only can this application generate key pairs but it can also validate key pairs and resolve public keys from private keys. This application has also been vouched for by EOS New York
 

Sources:

EOS.IO Github
eosnewyork's key pair generation tutorial
eoscafe's offline key par generation application  
submitted by Techno-Tech to eos [link] [comments]

aelf AMA answers week 1 - 7.5.18

https://preview.redd.it/v6ga5pkqijw01.jpg?width=1920&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5a3d67003113fcd67408c4ffc1a71dfc0e6c0253
This week, our offline AMA kicked off with a flurry. We were hoping for 10 quality questions in the first week, instead we received over 30 submissions in the first few days, and to date we have over 40!
As I’m sure you could imagine this made it difficult to pick the top 10 questions and we know there are some great questions we have not answers this week! But we have done our best and below are our answers to the questions selected for this week.
____________________
1) Is aelf competing with EOS or ETH directly? What advantages do you have?
Ethereum is seen as the progression from Bitcoin as Blockchain 2.0 if you will. It brings turing complete smart contracts to blockchain so that more complex business logics can be executed. However, it's currently struggling with problems such as scalability and governance and the use cases are limited. Both aelf and EOS are efforts to solve these remaining problems and both projects add more functionalities so that the next-gen blockchain technology will be easily adopted by businesses. However, it's not accurate to say we are competitors as we approach the problems in different ways and the overlap of the use cases of these two projects may be small if there is. aelf's features like resource segregation, cloud computing and customizable side chains will enable existing industries to quickly migrate to blockchain as well as enable new forms of businesses in the ecosystem.
2) When will be the mainnet launch for aelf?
The aelf Mainnet is due for release at the start of Q1 2019, aelf Testnet is due for release in Q3 2018
3) HPB team is developing kind of ASIC unit along with software interface API to achieve highly concurrent computation. For example, single board will be capable to process 10000 TCP/IP connections in parallel (from HPB whitepaper). What do you think about hardware acceleration idea, are you going to develop hardware acceleration for yourself, or aelf blockchain structure don't need this?
The aelf chain will not need this type of hardware as it does not employ PoW. The Mainchain will be running DPoS. In addition to this, each node will be run as a cluster in a cloud computing format. This will eliminate the bottleneck from slower computers and miners in the system by each one running in parallel with all others in the node.
4) How did aelf get its name?
At the very beginning, we named the project "Grid" to reflect the multi-chain structure. However we soon realized that there is another project called "Grid plus" which focuses on energy market. In order to avoid the confusion in the market, Haobo and Zhuling decided to make a name change. Both of them are game players: Zhuling is crazy about Starcraft while Haobo likes Warcraft. Tens of names were proposed from each game and ultimately the "elf race" from Warcraft got the attention. To make it more fun, they decided to use an ancient spelling of elf - aelf as the project name. That's how the legend begins
5) How can we mine the coins? How many algorithms for mining?
There will be no Proof of Work mining for the Mainchain as it is running DPoS. This will mean rewards are handed out to mining nodes who have been elected into their position by the community voting system. Sidechains may also run DPoS, but they could run PoS, PoW, or other consensus protocols. As such, there may be mining opportunities for these sidechains which are different to the Mainchain, but this will depend on each organisation and the rewards will be in their own coin, not aelf.
6) Is aelf's true purpose Web 4.0? A blockchain based operating system? To run dapps?
Yes and no, aelf is building a framework which is designed to run dApps through sidechains on the network. This is focused mainly for businesses and other corporations who intent to incorporate blockchain technology into their business. Running as an operating system is more of an example, similar to how lots of businesses run their systems on linux, but it is not a main operating system for everyday public use.
7) Can I bring aelfie to aelf Singapore office to meet the team and take picture?
Sure, if you happen to be in Singapore you can contact the team to meet for a chat. However, we do recommend aelfie pictures to be creative and fun. That means there are many more places that you can take a picture with aelfie in Singapore.
8) What is a witness? What will be considered as a "good vote" by such witnesses?
A witness will be an individual who has staked a minimum amount of aelf coins in order to participate in the voting system for the aelf network. There is no good or bad vote, every participant of aelf network holding ELF token will get to vote on major decisions, such as electing mining nodes, introducing new features to the system and other major decisions. Just like there is no good vote when voting for the president of a country, each voter will vote in the direction in which the voter believes is the correct path or the node to be delegated.
9) Do you guys have a calm atmosphere where everyone is doing their job or do you have to be watched to not have too much fun instead of working? just curious
Our team has one of the best dynamics just like our community. Although the team is quite distributed (except the tech team is mostly in Beijing), we responsibly deliver the best to the project and coordinate among each other. Calm is probably not the best word to describe the atmosphere as in Blockchain space, it is really exciting and people are motivated to make differences.
____________________
For the final question we could not decide on one only. As such we have something special for you all. We have selected 3 questions to be listed in our surprise section. These questions will remain unanswered until next week’s post. But the twist is that we want you to comment with what you think the correct/best answers are. The 5 closest responses to the actual correct answers will be added into the next week’s post
https://preview.redd.it/8u7v9u7jqjw01.jpg?width=451&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3cc7b95694f06ba031441fcf823c01f17c30adc0
1) What are the ages of our leadership: Chen Zhuling & Ma Haobo?
???????
2) What is @floris-jan favorite activity besides aelf?
???????
3) Which animal is aelfie?
???????
Remember to comment in the following format:
1) ‘answer’ - if you are answering the first question or…
2) ‘answer’ - if you are answering the second question or…
3) ‘answer’ - if you are answering the third question
Answers which are not in the correct format will not be counted.
If you would like to submit your own questions, the AMA form can be found here
submitted by orzedwin to aelfofficial [link] [comments]

jl777 Discusses Metachain Scaling and Burn Protocol. 6/24/18

Jl777 discusses Metachain Scaling and Burn Protocol. This was pulled from an informal conversation on Discord on 6/24/18. Full disclosure, I’ve edited content to combine shorter messages into paragraph format to help readability including necessary punctuation. I’ve also removed background comments that weren’t relevant to the discussion topic, but the full conversation is on Komodo Discord and Telegram channels.
 
TLDR in the Comments.
 
jl777: http://cryptocartography.io/txscl_vis/ Right now a small test is running, only 64 chains and getting 7000+ tx/sec. Now 9000+, it might make it to 10,000 tx/sec using 64 chains. These are full bitcoin protocol crypto tx. 9892.
 
JohnWestbrook: So to out-perform visa we need another 47k/second...What’s the relationship between chain count and tx?
 
jl777: More chains, more capacity, if you need double the capacity, double the number of chains. If you need 100x, then 100x the chains. KMD is now leading in dPoW security, JUMBLR privacy, scaling and atomic swaps.
 
JohnWestbrook: Nice, so this will theoretically tell us the exact number of chains to hit 60K/second. Is a chain defined as a full node?
 
jl777: A chain is defined as a blockchain, you know, like bitcoin. Bitcoin seems to work pretty well, so we just replicate chains over and over.
 
JohnWestbrook: Right, but what do you mean when you say 64...ah gotcha. That’s what I was asking.
 
jl777: 64 different chains, means 64 chains that are all different. It seems about 6400 chains will hit 1 mil tx/sec.
 
JohnWestbrook: Jeez
 
jl777: Nobody ever said it was easy to do.
 
JohnWestbrook: haha
 
jl777: But it can be done by replicating working tech, ie. the basic bitcoin protocol blockchain. No magic needed and unlike other scaling proposals, we secure each of these chains with dPoW.
 
JohnWestbrook: That would be 64000 instances running, correct? so 64K VMs could handle this? Right. So they are bitcoin-level secure out of the box. I want to write an article on this, thus my questions, gotta wrap my little mind around and see how it can easily be communicated to people who glaze over when they hear the word “chain”.
 
jl777: The problem with having many chains is that there are many chains, so how does one chain interact with the other, let alone all 6400 of them. That is where our MoMoM tech comes in.
 
JohnWestbrook: Ah right, I was reading up on that yesterday.
 
jl777: Audo has good materials on that, but the essence is that we add to the notarization data, additional levels of merkle data that allows any chain to validate any other chain's tx, as long as KMD is around to create the proofs. This ability allows to create a burn protocol, so that coins can be burned on one chain and recreated on another.
 
JohnWestbrook: Could mpich be used to run multiple instances of a daemon and essentially individual chains?
 
jl777: What is mpich?
 
JohnWestbrook: Quick and dirty super computer, allows you to tie together CPU threads from many servers on a network to run a process multiple times.
 
jl777: No user has to run all the chains, they would just run the ones they care about, so however the usage is localized, users would use the few chains they need. We use komodo assetchains, so you launch a new komodod for each chain assuming a geographic allocation of chains, you would have citywide chains, countywide, statewide, nationwide. So most people just have their city's chain locally, if they are travelling to a different city, they convert to the new city's chain.
 
JohnWestbrook: Right was just thinking that through, so where is the bottleneck then...
 
jl777: A bit of prep work but at least it is possible and it can all be automated. The burn protocol takes 2 to 3 notarizations, which automatically builds in security to the process, but it does take half hour or so.
 
JohnWestbrook: So in a sense the user experience is massive tx capacity and the notarization can continue on without impacting the performance users experience?
 
jl777: Notarization only impacts a user when they are transferring coins from one chain to another then they need to wait 2 or 3 notarizations.
 
JohnWestbrook: okay, I see.
 
jl777: All the rest of the time, the notarizations just happen, securing the chain.
 
JohnWestbrook: Very nice.
 
jl777: No need to break things into unsecured shards, when the blockchains are already independent and dPow secured.
 
JohnWestbrook: Exactly.
 
jl777: This is the first viable candidate to use for a nationwide crypto, all the other proposed solutions I see are either insecure or unproven or don’t exist.
 
JohnWestbrook: This is so much superior to ethereum proposed sharding.
 
jl777: It is much simpler and simpler is much better, yes. It also costs much less per tx, a lot less, it ends up being as secure as BTC. Sort of a magic trick.
 
JohnWestbrook: Yeah in every way. more secure, faster, scalable, etc.
 
jl777: But this is just one use-case of our contracts tech, we continue to create useful solutions while most other projects have some sort of pie in the sky whitepaper, many describing what we already have.
 
JohnWestbrook: Very true. Meanwhile you are getting about 5X the current avg tx speed of Visa, and roughly 50X that of PayPal.
 
jl777: Tx or payments?
 
JohnWestbrook: TX per second.
 
jl777: One tx can have 1 payment or 100+.
 
JohnWestbrook: Visa avg about 1600 i think. oh right! Lol.
 
jl777: At 100 payments tx, you lose 90% of tx/sec, but gain 100x on payments so a 10x increase in payments / sec. 10,000 tx/sec of 1 pay -: 1000 tx/sec of 100 pay = 100,000 payments per second. that is with "only" 64 chains.
 
JohnWestbrook: Ah. need to confirm the numbers on others...but for example i think ether is 20 or so, maybe that’s old info.
 
jl777: What is the point for single blockchain throughputs when we can spawn an arbitrary number and we don’t need some magical maglev vacuum sealed hypersonic roadway. Just an old fashioned asphalt road suffices.
 
JohnWestbrook: haha yes.
 
jl777: Whatever capacity the hypersonic maglev road can achieve, N asphalt roads will get much better overall traffic throughput and be much less expensive. There is only one complex/clever part about our scaling and that is the MoMoM, 99% is just brute force replication of working blockchain tech.
 
Grewalsatinder: I think train track example again suites here instead of roads.
 
jl777: Granted, being able to spawn a chain from the command line is pretty cool and what makes it possible to automate.
 
Yorklab: If there is no limit (or if it's crazy high), then Komodo should advertise as such. State the actual tested then state what's theoretically possible, because the tested number proves the theory.
 
jl777: The only limit is the number of blockchains the internet can support. More chains, more capacity and we are seeing a linear scaling of capacity per chain, now the bottlenecks have been fixed.
 
Yorklab: Then Komodo's scaling capability is unlimited. Never heard anybody else state this before, much less prove it.
 
jl777: It is limited by the internet's capacity.
 
blackjok3r: @JohnWestbrook If you have any questions for me about the tests design let me know. It’s incredibly simple in its function. As James said we just automated a system that allows for spawning unlimited chains and then filling all of their mempools with TX at the same time.
 
jl777: While it is being notarized.
 
Blackjok3r: yes.
 
jl777: And that also allows the burn protocol to be done at the same time.
 
Yorklab: Speaking only of Komodo's capability.
 
jl777: KMD is needed to create the proofs, dPoW must go to KMD chain, it’s only a few hundred KMD per year per chain, so it won’t be that much of an effect, until we get 10,000+ chains notarizing. But considering that 10,000 chains can be spawned automatically it is just a matter of having the funding to launch a single cluster of 10,000 chains.
 
jl777: On a separate topic I added: fill or kill, immediate or cancel and good till canceled modes for BarterDEX trades, from the Alice side. Bob automatically makes custom sized utxo for Alice so Alice just needs to have the utxo for the purchase and the dexfee. It also autosplits if there is only one utxo. Until these improvements it was running in a hybrid (and silly) config of immediate or cancel for Alice but Bob was treating it as a fill or kill, so I think order matching will be 10x better now.
 
Matt Watt: How on earth does one code all that stuff…? I have difficulties to just run a file on the linux terminal. Just learned to point the terminal to a directory by using cd and then execute the file by ./
 
Jl777: it’s not just me coding.
 
Matt Watt: Gonna take course C++. Want to know more… build own mining prog and setting up FPGA cards.
 
Jl777: Best way to learn is to do.
 
AndronicusBass: Get active and peer to peer human networking will help you advance your goal.
 
Jl777: We recently got the burn protocol working so all the pieces are in place for a nationwide crypto.
[End Conversation]
submitted by regnar2 to komodoplatform [link] [comments]

QuarkChain Review

Introduction

QuarkChain is a new blockchain project currently in the testnet phase. They are building highly scalable and secure blockchain and aims to handle up to one million transactions per second using a two-layered blockchain system. By using the EVM they will also support smart contracts and make developers able to deploy dApps originally built on Ethereum over to the QuarkChain blockchain when Mainnet is live in Q4 2018.
By reaching 1 M transactions per second, QuarkChain will surpass a lot of major blockchains in terms of speed. Bitcoin do 3-4 tps and Ethereum around 10-12 tps. This is a huge difference and will set those two blockchains under a pressure. Bitcoin are working on Lightning Network, and Ethereum on Sharding. Are they finishing it in time? That's the question.

Team + Advisors introduction

Qi Zhou — Founder Qi Zhou achieved 10M tps as a member of the real time infrastructure team at Facebook Expert in scalability and was a key developer in achieving 10m IOPS with clustering for EMC 5+ years as a software engineer. Short stints with key roles at Facebook (1 year), Dell EMC (2.5 years), Google (9 months) and Ratrix Technologies (10 months). PHD from Georgia institute of Technology
Zhaoguang Wang — Software Engineer Zhaouang has 6+ years experience as a system backend engineer working on large complex distributed systems Key roles at Facebook (1 year), Instagram (4 months), Google (5 years) PHD and Masters degree in Computer Science and Engineering, University of Michigan
Xiaoli Ma — Research Scientist Professor at Georgia Institute of Technology (Combined 7 years, 10 months) Previously CTO and Co Founder of Ratrix Technologies (6 years, 5 months)
Yaodong Yang — Research Scientist Vice Chairman in Education at Xi’an Jiaotong University, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology Co-founder of Demo++ (Tech Incubator) Yaodong has authorized 50+ papers in peer reviewed journals and has over 600 citations in his name.
Wencen Wu — Research Scientist Wencen has been a Assistant Professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (4 years and 6 months). Has a MSC and PHD in Electrical and Computer Engineering Operations Team
Anturine Xiang — Marketing and Community Anturine has 6+ years experience within finance and technology at Wall Street and Silicon Valley Key Roles as Lead Platform Analytics at Wish, Business Development and Marketing at Beepi, Consumer Marketing and Analytics at LinkedIn Partners and Investors
Arun G. Phadke Arun is a University Distinguished Professor emeritus in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Virginia Tech Fellow of National Academy of Engineering, USA
Bill Moore Managing Director of Walden International (Global venture capital firm) Previously Chief Engineer Sun Microsystems who co-led the ZFS team, also Former President of DSSD/EMC (Dell)
Mike Miller Mike is a PhD Physicist with 100+ publications Founder of Cloundant which was acquired by IBM in 2014
Kevin Hsu Kevin is a serial investor in blockchain companies
Leo Wang Leo is a recognised cryptocurrency fund manager who invested in blockchain projects. He is an Angel investor in NEO with over 17 years of field experience in mobile internet in China
Zhiyun Qian Cybersecurity expert who discovered serious vulnerabilities in Linux, Android and TCP/IP Assistant Professor at University of California Riverside

Technology explained

QuarkChain is using sharding to provide a high capacity P2P transactional system. The blockchain is built with two main layers – a sharding layer, which makes it possible with high throughput by effectively distributing data, and a Root layer, which serves to confirm the blocks of the sharding layer.
QuarkChain aims to satisfy the tradeoff between the three pillars of a blockchain – decentralization, security, and scalability. I am explaining more about the technology below.
Two-layered blockchains The QuarkChain consists of two layers of blockchains. We apply elastic sharding blockchains (shards) as the first layer, and a root blockchain that confirms the blocks from the shards as the second layer.
Cross-shard transactions Cross-shard transactions can be issued at any time, and confirmed in minutes. The throughput of cross-shard transactions increases linearly as the number of shards increases.
Market driven collaborative mining We designed a game theoretic framework for incentives, where hash powers are incentivized to distribute evenly among shards. There are at least 50% of overall hash power allocated to the root chain to prevent double spending attack.
Simple account management There is only one account needed for all shards. All cryptocurrencies from different shards are stored in one smart wallet.
Horizontal scalability Because a super-full node can be extremely expensive when TPS goes high, we allow multiple honest nodes forming a cluster running as a super-full node.

Prototype and testnet

QuarkChain has a finished prototype and has runned a live testnet demo on an AMA with the YouTube channel "Decentralized Chain" where they had five nodes and a speed of more than 1300 transactions per second. That's very impressive and beats most of the competitors already. But they are not stopping there. With more nodes coming up and improvement of the product they aim to reach incredible 1 M transactions per second. No blockchains on the market right now is not even close to those numbers. Even EOS which launches their Mainnet in June has 10 times less than QuarkChain in terms of speed with its 100 000 tps.
The wallet they demonstrated looks very user friendly already at this point and if you have used other blockchains before you will easily understand this wallet.
Sources QuarkChain Website QuarkChain Whitepaper LinkedIn
submitted by Mikeey89 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 Mining.

QuarkChain Testnet 1.0 was built based on standardized blockchain system requirements, which included network, wallet, browser, and virtual machine functionalities. Other than the fact that the token was a test currency, the environment was completely compatible with the main network. By enhancing the communication efficiency and security of the network, Testnet 2.0 further improves the openness of the network. In addition, Testnet 2.0 will allow community members (other than citizens or residents of the United States) to contribute directly to the network, i.e. running a full node and mining, and receive testnet tokens as rewards.
QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 will support multiple mining algorithms, including two typical algorithms: Ethash and Double SHA256, as well as QuarkChain’s unique algorithm called Qkchash – a customized ASIC-resistant, CPU mining algorithm, exclusively developed by QuarkChain. Mining is available both on the root chain and on shards due to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure. Miners can flexibly choose to mine on the root chain with higher computing power requirements or on shards based on their own computing power levels. Our Goal By allowing community members to participate in mining on Testnet 2.0, our goal is to enhance QuarkChain’s community consensus, encourage community members to participate in testing and building the QuarkChain network, and gain first-hand experience of QuarkChain’s high flexibility and usability. During this time, we hope that the community can develop a better understanding about our mining algorithms, sharding technologies, and governance structures, etc. Furthermore, this will be a more thorough challenge to QuarkChain’s design before the launch of mainnet! Thus, we sincerely invite you to join the Testnet 2.0 mining event and build QuarkChain’s infrastructure together!
Today, we’re pleased to announce that we are officially providing the CPU mining demo to the public (other than citizens and residents of the United States)! Everyone can participate in our mining event, and earn tQKC, which can be exchanged to real rewards by non-U.S. persons after the launch of our mainnet. Also, we expect to upgrade our testnet over time, and expect to allow GPU mining for Ethash, and ASIC mining for Double SHA256 in the future. In addition, in the near future, a mining pool that is compatible with all mining algorithms of QuarkChain is also expected to be supported.
We hope all the community members can join in with us, and work together to complete this milestone! 2 Introduction to Mining Algorithms 2.1 What is mining? Mining is the process of generating the new blocks, in which the records of current transactions are added to the record of past transactions. Miners use software that contribute their mining power to participate in the maintenance of a blockchain. In return, they obtain a certain amount of QKC per block, which is called coinbase reward. Like many other blockchain technologies, QuarkChain adopts the most widely used Proof of Work (PoW) consensus algorithm to secure the network.
A cryptographically-secure PoW is a costly and time-consuming process which is difficult to solve due to computation-intensity or memory intensity but easy for others to verify. For a block to be valid it must satisfy certain requirements and hash to a value less than the current target threshold. Reverting a block requires recreating all successor blocks and redoing the work they contain, which is costly.
By running a cluster, everyone can become a miner and participate in the mining process. The mining rewards are proportional to the number of blocks mined by each individual.
2.2 Introduction to QuarkChain Algorithms and Mining setup According to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure and Boson consensus, different shards can apply different consensus and mining algorithms. As part of the Boson consensus, each shard can adjust the difficulty dynamically to increase or decrease the hash power of each shard chain.
In order to fully test QuarkChain testnet 2.0, we adopt three different types of mining algorithms” Ethash, Double SHA256, and Qkchash, which is ASIC resistant and exclusively developed by QuarkChain founder Qi Zhou. These first two hash algorithms correspond to the mining algorithms dominantly conducted on the graphics processing unit (GPU) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), respectively.
I. Ethash Ethash is the PoW mining algorithm for Ethereum. It is the latest version of earlier Dagger-Hashimoto. Ethash is memory intensive, which makes it require large amounts of memory space in the process of mining. The efficiency of mining is basically independent of the CPU, but directly related to memory size and bandwidth. Therefore, by design, building Ethash ASIC is relatively difficult. Currently, the Ethash mining is dominantly conducted on the GPU machines. Read more about Ethash: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethash
II. Double SHA256 Double SHA256 is the PoW mining algorithms for Bitcoin. It is computational intensive hash algorithm, which uses two SHA256 iterations for the block header. If the hash result is less than the specific target, the mining is successful. ASIC machine has been developed by Bitmain to find more hashes with less electrical power usage. Read more about Double SHA256: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Block_hashing_algorithm
III. Qkchash Originally, Bitcoin mining was conducted on the CPU of individual computers, with more cores and greater speed resulting in more profitability. After that, the mining process became dominated by GPU machines, then field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and finally ASIC, in a race to achieve more hash rates with less electrical power usage. Due to this arms race, it has become increasingly harder for prospective new miners to join. This raises centralization concerns because the manufacturers of the high-performance ASIC are concentrated in a small few.
To solve this, after extensive research and development, QuarkChain founder Dr. Qi Zhou has developed mining algorithm — Qkchash, that is expected to be ASIC-resistant. The idea is motivated by the famous date structure orders-statistic tree. Based on this data structure, Qkchash requires to perform multiple search, insert, and delete operations in the tree, which tries to break the ASIC pipeline and makes the code execution path to be data-dependent and unpredictable besides random memory-access patterns. Thus, the mining efficiency is closely related to the CPU, which ensures the security of Boston consensus and encourges the mining decentralization.
Please refer to Dr. Qi’s paper for more details: https://medium.com/quarkchain-official/order-statistics-based-hash-algorithm-e40f108563c4
2.3 Testnet 2.0 mining configuration Numbers of Shards: 8 Cluster: According to the real-time online mining node The corresponding mining algorithm is Read more about Ethash with Guardian: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/wiki/Ethash-with-Guardian)
We will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners are able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the mining difficulty and rewards of different shards. GPU / ASIC mining is allowed if the public manages to get it working with the current testnet. With the upgrade of our testnet, we will further provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC software.
QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure, new P2P mode, and Boson consensus algorithm are expected tobe fully tested and verified in the QuarkChain testnet 2.0. 3 Mining Guidance In order to encourage all community members to participate in QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 mining event, we have prepared three mining guidances for community members of different backgrounds.
Today we are releasing the Docker Mining Tutorial first. This tutorial provides a command line configuration guide for developers and a docker image for multiple platforms, including a concise introduction of nodes and mining settings. Follow the instructions here: Quick Start with QuarkChain Mining.
Next we will continue to release: A tutorial for community members who don’t have programming background. In this tutorial, we will teach how to create private QuarkChain nodes using AWS, and how to mine QKC step by step. This tutorial is expected to be released in the next few days. Programs and APIs integrated with GPU / ASIC mining. This is expected to allow existing miners to switch to QKC mining more seamlessly. Frequently Asked Questions: 1. Can I use my laptop or personal computer to mine? Yes, we will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners will be able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the work difficulty and rewards of different shards. 2. What is the minimum requirements for my laptop or personal computer to mine? Please prepare a Linux or MacOs machine with public IP address or port forwarding set up. 3. Can I mine with my GPU or an ASIC machine? For now, we will only be providing the demo implementation of CPU mining as our first step. Interested miners/developers can rewrite the corresponding GPU / ASIC mining program, according to the JSON RPC API we provided. With the upgrade of our testnet, we expect to provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC interface at a later date. 4. What is the difference among the different mining algorithms? Which one should I choose? Double SHA256 is a computational intensive algorithm, but Ethash and Qkchash are memory intensive algorithms, which have certain requirements on the computer’s memory. Since currently we only support CPU mining, the mining efficiency entirely depends on the cores and speed of CPU. 5. For testnet mining, what else should I know? First, the mining process will occupy a computer’s memory. Thus, it is recommended to use an idle computer for mining. In Testnet 2.0 settings, the target block time of root chain is 60 seconds, and the target block time of shard chain is 10 seconds. The mining is a completely random process, which will take some time and consume a certain amount of electricity. 6. What are the risks of testnet mining? Currently our testnet is still under the development stage and may not be 100% stable. Thus, there would be some risks for QuarkChain main chain forks in testnet, software upgrades and system reboots. These may cause your tQKC or block record to be lost despite our best efforts to ensure the stability and security of the testnet.
For more technical questions, welcome to join our developer community on Discard: https://discord.me/quarkchain. 4 Reward Mechanism Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein, including mining, are not being offered and will not be available to any citizens or residents of the United States and certain other jurisdictions. All rewards will only be payable following the mainnet launch of QuarkChain. In order to claim or receive any of the following rewards after mainnet launch, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information about yourself. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other sanctions.
NO U.S. PERSONS MAY PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0 AND QUARKCHAIN WILL STRICTLY ENFORCE THIS VIA OUR KYC PROCEDURES. IF YOU ARE A CITIZEN OR RESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DO NOT PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0. YOU WILL NOT RECEIVE ANY REWARDS FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION.
4.1 Mining Rewards
  1. Prize Pool A total of 5 million QKC prize pool have been reserved to motivate all miners to participate in the testnet 2.0 mining event. According to the different mining algorithms, the prize pool is allocated as follows:
Total Prize Pool: 5,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Ethash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Double SHA256 Algorithm: 1,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Qkchash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC
The number of QKC each miner is eligible to receive upon mainnet launch will be calculated on a pro rata basis for each mining algorithm set forth above, based on the ratio of sharded block mined by each miner to the total number of sharded block mined by all miners employing such mining algorithm in Testnet 2.0.
  1. Early-bird Rewards To encourage more people to participate early, we will provide early bird rewards. Miners who participate in the first month (December 2018, PST) will enjoy double points. This additional point reward will be ended on December 31, 2018, 11:59pm (PST).
4.2 Bonus for Bug Submission: If you find any bugs for QuarkChain testnet, please feel free to create an issue on our Github page: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/issues, or send us an email to [email protected]rkchain.org. We may provide related rewards based on the importance and difficulty of the bugs.
4.3 Reward Rules: QuarkChain reserves the right to review the qualifications of the participants in this event. If any cheating behaviors were to be found, the participant will be immediately disqualified from any rewards. QuarkChain further reserves the right to update the rules of the event, to stop the event/network, or to restart the event/network in its sole discretion, including the right to interpret any rules, terms or conditions. For the latest information, please visit our official website or follow us on Telegram/Twitter. About QuarkChain QuarkChain is a flexible, scalable, and user-oriented blockchain infrastructure by applying blockchain sharding technology. It is one of the first public chains that successfully implemented state sharding technology for blockchain in the world. QuarkChain aims to deliver 100,000+ on-chain TPS. Currently, 14,000+ peak TPS has already been achieved by an early stage testnet. QuarkChain already has over 50 partners in its ecosystem. With flexibility, scalability, and usability, QuarkChain is enabling EVERYONE to enjoy blockchain technology at ANYTIME and ANYWHERE.
Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein are not being and will not be offered in the United States or to any U.S. persons (as defined in Regulation S promulgated under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended) or any citizens or residents of countries subject to sanctions including the Balkans, Belarus, Burma, Cote D’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Iraq, Liberia, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, Zimbabwe, Central African Republic, Crimea, Lebanon, Libya, Somalia, South Suda, Venezuela and Yemen. QuarkChain reserves the right to terminate, suspend or prohibit participation of any user in Testnet 2.0 at any time.
In order to claim or receive any rewards, including mining rewards, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in termination of your participation, forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other actions.
This announcement is provided for informational purposes only and does not guarantee anyone a right to participate in or receive any rewards in connection with Testnet 2.0.
Note: The use of Testnet 2.0 is subject to our terms and conditions available at: https://quarkchain.io/testnet-2-0-terms-and-conditions/
more about qurakchain: Website: https://quarkchain.io/cn/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/quarkchainofficial/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain Telegram: https://t.me/quarkchainio
submitted by Rahadsr to u/Rahadsr [link] [comments]

Swiss Alps Energy provides the foundation for many future-oriented applications

Swiss Alps Energy provides the foundation for many future-oriented applications
The blockchain community worldwide faces strong headwinds due to the very energy- intensive mining process of crypto currencies and blockchain-based business applications. At the same time, in the Swiss alps, thousands of unused structures are disintegrating due to the fact that today’s spatial planning law does not allow for residential use of these buildings.

https://preview.redd.it/wj2750koryu11.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=382d5b28923596ee5502b6e0aac8961431dba981
Swiss Alps Energy AG is a distributed ledger-based energy supplier and an operator of flexible modular mining infrastructures that are intended for longterm stationary use. The decentralized distribution of the various facilities allows SAE to offer equally decentralized hosting of individual company blockchains and enables SAE to rent out these infrastructures. Thereby, SAE preserves the aforementioned unused buildings in the Swiss alps and uses them sensibly and without interference with either building structure or the environment.

SAE Target

Out of its unique position as an experienced Swiss provider of blockchain technology and hyperledger-based business applications, Swiss Alps Mining & Energy strives to: • promote blockchain technology and its uses to a broader public • provide clients/third parties the decentralized infrastructure to develeop their own blockchain-based projects • address environmental issues associated with crypto mining worldwide • support the local economy in Swiss alpine areas and facilitate the digital transformation in these areas • Be an electricity supplier using the distributed ledger technology.

The Mission

  • It is of utmost importance that neutral members support the network independently of trading courses. Furthermore, it is important that there are offers that can be paid purely in digital currencies in order to achieve a balance. SAE has developed a sustainable concept to meet these challenges and to address environmental issues.
  • SAE strives to contribute to the digital era and to strenghten the foundation of the groundbreaking blockchain technology. The company aims to advance the digital transformation and bring it to consumers and businesses alike. SAE develops and promotes possibilities and solutions based on distributed ledger technology and seeks to turn digital currencies into an everyday feature.

https://preview.redd.it/k1cqm45pryu11.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a5dfb2f199b120c08f226880c519ea38b7b244fe

Market Problem

Over the last few months alone, the Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index has increased by 30%. If bitcoin energy consumption continues to grow at such rates – and no suitable optimization measures are taken – by 2020, bitcoin mining would exceed global electricity consumption by 21 TWh.. In 2017, average costs are estimated to have quadrupled. The mining market is a global business, whereby more than 80% of the mining is done by Chinese-owned businesses. The second largest provider is the Czech Republic with a market share of about 10%. The industry is in an «arms race» and the current crypto currency prices create incentives to add production capacity. There evidently is a need for alternative energy models for the mining of crypto currencies.

SAE Solution

Swiss Alps Energy AG (SAE) strives to promote digital transformaton and sustainability in the Swiss alps. The company is a distributed ledger based energy supplier – SAM Power Plant – and an operator of flexible modular mining infrastructures – SAM Cubes – which are intended for longterm stationary use.
Swiss Alps Energy AG aims to achieve the goal of being energy supplier, energy sales platform and neutral network node provider through its SAM Power Plant, SAM Cubes, and SAM Centers. Swiss Alps Energy AG provides the foundation for many future-oriented applications: financial asset custody and transfer, product tracking through blockchain and IoT in logistics and transportation, electronic records in healthcare, and identity management to simplify the KYC process for any conceivable industry are just a few examples of how distributed ledger technology can be used.

https://preview.redd.it/oo3grwbsryu11.jpg?width=1600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=1b84ad0d82f34ffa08b39cade925453866255baa
• SAM Power Plants
By means of direct participation in or the purchase of green power plants such as hydropower plants, photovoltaic systems and wind power plants, SAE does not buy but produce the sustainable and cost-efficient power to operate the SAM Cubes. These power- generating units are the so-called SAM Power Plants.
SAE supports the decentralization and digitization of the energy transition through tokenization and an integrated Internet of Things (IoT) for the purchase or exchange of electricity. Hereby, SAE acts as an independent energy supplier, connecting the interested parties. SAE receives data on the electricity produced and consumed, as well as the respective energy price. This information is stored on the blockchain and therefore transparent and visible.

SAE Introduces SAM Mesh as an Independent ecosystem

  • In order to meet the highest demands in terms of performance, safety and maintenance, Swiss Alps Energy AG develops its own applications based on a derivative of Linux.
  • Every single application, be it in a SAM Cube or SAM Power Plant, initializes and automatically registers itself as a node of a large cluster. Thus, SAM Mesh represents an independent ecosystem.
  • The applications are built to be part of a large network, they are connected at all times and monitored accordingly. In the event of a hardware or software failure, the network will be informed.
  • Classic offline alerts via SMS to the local maintenance service are also integrated, if communication via SAM Mesh is temporarily not possible or restricted.
  • In addition to that, the application is set up and configured in such a way that in the event of hardware failure, it can simply be replaced by plug and play. The system adopts the configurations for the displayed node automatically from the - - SAM Mesh and is fully functional again within a very short time.

SAE Resources

  • Technical innovations and measures to reduce negative impacts on the environment turn small hydropower plants into affordable energy sources that provide environmentally friendly renewable electricity in a decentralized way.
  • Besides the construction of such power plants, there are currently several facilities for sale. Excess energy could be sold to competitors or to the electricity grid, whereby the focus clearly lies on selling excess power to competitors and on promoting Switzerland as a mining location.
  • The operation of subsidized small hydropower plants seems to be interesting as small hydropower plants with a total capacity of less than 1000 kW are exempted from water rates (water tax).

PaaS and IaaS Models

Platform as a Service (PaaS) or Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is an important service model in distributed ledger technology. SAM PaaS and SAM IaaS provide the basis for advanced technologies and applications developed on distributed ledger technology. Swiss Alps Energy AG promotes transparent software solutions that cannot be manipulated thanks to a comprehensive infrastructure service, its own innovative power production, as well as sophisticatedconsulting. In particular, finance, transport and medical systems, as well as global identity management are affected. The SAM infrastructure already provides the basis for such disruptive technologies today.

https://preview.redd.it/jtd3zwprryu11.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b924eb7bb97ef1459d17a45213b0817498f91fc8

The ICO

Swiss Alps Energy AG (SAE) will hold an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) in June 2018. The funds raised in the ICO will be used to finance the development and expansion of the mining facilities and to acquire holdings in hydropower plants. The SAM token, Sam, is an ERC20 token. It will be used as means of payment within the SAE mining and service universe and will be tradable outside the SAM platform on all relevant exchanges.

Why SAE doin an ICO?

  • Swiss Alps Energy AG strives to raise the capital necessary to set up the corporate structure with an Initial Coin Offering (ICO).
  • It is important to create an operating company that is profitable very quickly. Therefore, the development and establishment of the company’s own decentralized blockchain is financed by further company activities, and the operation of the company is financially secured.
  • Companies and individual persons are target customers for the mining capacities. They may either rent computing power or buy a cube for their ow use.
  • Customers who buy a cube can obtain the necessary power from SAE and operate the cube on SAE’s premises or deploy the cube elsewhere.
  • SAM Cubes can be shipped and installed worldwide. Target customers for the blockchain are companies and end-users..
After the initial development of SAE’s infrastructure and business activities in Switzerland, the expansion into foreign countries, especially in the area of renewable energies, is conceivable and desirable. The ability to pay by using crypto currencies and the settlement process via smart contracts is another novelty that can further help SAE to become the industry leader in the field of blockchain-based business models.

SAM Token

The SAM token needs a transactional blockchain with a powerful system of smart contracts. These smart contracts must be able to ensure that a transaction can be combined with the results of previous transactions to provide auditable and consistent results. To date, Ethereum is the only stable system that has achieved widespread adoption and offers these abilities. Sam tokens are minted via a token sale smart contract and can be held in any Ethereum ERC20 compatible wallet. They will be tradable outside the SAM platform, as they are ERC20 tokens with inherent value in the exchanges. The technical solution of the SAM platform consists of two main elements: • the user facing dashboard and wallet • the smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain system

https://preview.redd.it/duioby0tryu11.jpg?width=960&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5fdc2b03b3cdafff426bfdb078d60f68d8e78fdf

Finally

Swiss Alps Energy AG (SAE) strives to contribute to the digital era and to strenghten the foundation of the groundbreaking blockchain technology. The company aims to advance the digital transformation and bring it to consumers and businesses alike. SAE develops and promotes possibilities and solutions based on distributed ledger technology and seeks to turn digital currencies into an everyday feature.

✅Website: https://swissalpsmining.io/ ✅Whitepaper: https://swissalpsmining.io/pdf/whitepaper.pdf
submitted by Ahmedgalal81 to ico [link] [comments]

About Raspberry Pi Cluster setup

Sometimes I see people doing these cluster builds and got a bit curious.
I know that they work together and can handle data together from a "main source", if not unorganized structure.
I have a few questions that came to my mind.
 
How does the specs compare to a server or a normal computer?
What are the common systems/structures used?
What can it do? (example: website, bitcoin mining, games)
Is it possible to combine them together to a bigger computer (like one linux machine on all together)?
Is it worth it?
submitted by Typewar to raspberry_pi [link] [comments]

$1500-$2000 USD scientific workstation

Build Help/Ready:

Have you read the sidebar and rules? (Please do)
Yes.
What is your intended use for this build? The more details the better.
Primary: Scientific Workstation
Software includes -
-> computationally expensive MATLAB
- CUDA-enabled GPU computing for MATLAB
-> computationally expensive quantum chemistry/DFT software
- Examples of software - I want to be able to do GPU-assisted simulations as well
- VASP - has GPU support
-> computationally expensive FDTD software
- Lumerical FDTD Solver - commercial software (I have a license) that apparently does not support GPU support; seems the main bottleneck is memory bandwidth and not processing power
gsvit - open source FDTD with GPU support
Secondary: Gaming, Cryptocurrency (Etherium, Bitcoin mining)
I figure the workstation specifications will more than cover the computer's ability to do these, but I wanted to mention these all for completeness sake.
If gaming, what kind of performance are you looking for? (Screen resolution, framerate, game settings)
1080p 60fps on high/ultra is good, but if the performance is possible wouldn't mind getting into 4k down the road. I mainly play Blizzard games and Minecraft right now, but may get into Destiny 2.
What is your budget (ballpark is okay)?
$1500-$2000, but variable.
In what country are you purchasing your parts?
United States
Post a draft of your potential build here (specific parts please). Consider formatting your parts list. Don't ask to be spoonfed a build (read the rules!). PCPartPicker part list / Price breakdown by merchant
Type Item Price
CPU Intel - Core i7-7700K 4.2GHz Quad-Core Processor $323.11 @ OutletPC
CPU Cooler Corsair - H60 54.0 CFM Liquid CPU Cooler $64.99 @ Amazon
Motherboard Asus - PRIME Z270-A ATX LGA1151 Motherboard $149.89 @ OutletPC
Memory G.Skill - Ripjaws V Series 16GB (2 x 8GB) DDR4-2400 Memory $124.99 @ NCIX US
Storage Samsung - 850 EVO-Series 250GB 2.5" Solid State Drive $89.99 @ B&H
Storage Western Digital - Caviar Blue 1TB 3.5" 7200RPM Internal Hard Drive $46.88 @ OutletPC
Video Card Gigabyte - GeForce GTX 1080 8GB AORUS xtreme edition Video Card $569.99 @ Amazon
Case NZXT - S340 (Black) ATX Mid Tower Case $69.99 @ B&H
Power Supply EVGA - SuperNOVA G3 550W 80+ Gold Certified Fully-Modular ATX Power Supply $70.98 @ Newegg
Prices include shipping, taxes, rebates, and discounts
Total (before mail-in rebates) $1530.81
Mail-in rebates -$20.00
Total $1510.81
Generated by PCPartPicker 2017-08-28 13:43 EDT-0400
Provide any additional details you wish below.
As I mentioned, the primary purpose of this computer will be as a scientific workstation. I don't intend for it to be servecluster quality, but rather a strong desktop computer (duel Windows/Linux boot) that can run some relatively small, computationally expensive simulations and software in a reasonable amount of time, before larger projects/assignments are created for running on a computing cluster.
My main concerns are reducing bottleneck - I want to be able to run both CPU and GPU-intensive software in a balanced way, meaning I'm not skimping on the GPU for a better CPU and vice versa. I realize it could be difficult to compare
Some specific questions I have:
1) According to Intel's site, the max RAM speed supported by the i7-7700k is DDR4-2400. How does one use RAM with a higher speed? Do you need a Xeon processor? Also, I'm looking at 32 GB RAM.
2) For my purpose, should I definitely get a Z270? I read somewhere that it has a better memory controller than the Z170, but not sure about this.
3) How does the 1080 compare to 2x 1070? Or a 1080 Ti? For CUDA and for cryptocurrencies? I don't know too much about these from a computer hardware perspective, but am interested in learning more.
Thank you!
submitted by Concordiaa to buildapc [link] [comments]

SR1 trial: DPR's private key

One of the released evidence exhibits (torrent, 538MB) is GX 296.pdf (mirror), which is a PGP private key, specifically: SilkRoad.asc, "dated modified 11/22/2011 8:21:46 AM".
This is the ASCII-armored private key of the main DPR public key, the one he signed forum posts with and messaged with people. I was surprised to see it screenshotted like that, and I thought it would be hilarious if I could take the private key and announce that I was actually the real DPR by signing it with his key (since I've occasionally been accused of it).
But it's a screenshot and not something one can copy-paste, which makes things difficult since every letter has to be perfect for the key to be valid. So I took an evening to carefully transcribe it; it took multiple passes to figure out each and every transcription error (mostly 1/l, O/0, which look nearly identical in the font*), but I finally did it:
-----BEGIN PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK----- Version: GnuPG v1.4.11 (GNU/Linux) lQO+BE2VWMwBCADcoI5qldde46EI80fHSTCS4CuJn1Py4AQjJvpAqFColeAm9xb1 /hb0ZUsG3vwod7uiPJdMlq3+1o3TSv9JlO3DPf7I50owQ9+S1ixXebouTvfpEKSb dq1IWAu+O4PtlmFEb76MOmjOzoeV8We8kCRFq8ThoK979A1DR09KsaDfSjCITdsU mQyVaRN0dCaj33V/QAPQybYAjNDEiNd0e1tV22n1dl6z2oVUgfJiuTVI5C0FhSKP c3odexbKUSVk9tkUWcfnk8+9HF5jGNHnUSjWxMkG1uZUDdWKl4yJqQhBHdYqcz8A hcJ6xADbFeoYEO6z5NEjXV0KmoDRCi4C7gdfABEBAAH+AgMC7Hbd7rIjH9vHfrZp /lhwGpLJknlcg/xD4nhaFtrlAVW5Lqn/oL/JqXKX6buPMGWsqrc+E/7A1ZMMHTl0 bn99MSQi1mTkCVyJP4xTpKouLmLIxvzy2/GOMGS03QX8iSzbE4j0el/c5YlYEQr4 genr8Xq9Iyv73W+1n+yOQvJ9PqaMFdyAZLIdNuEgBzvXSt00a5bLKjbL/KuoTdrA C3D1bc0HDlKnzVLcSAFat+y6A5B4EuI/d1oW2Id1tq3azuUpEb9ctG26sYtw7ipE edNjcwsO9XA+vNTnPy9ms698yf615Bwioih5FYNM3Vsqc1zLpv5XwdYWWRW4WRIW xiqqgv6oGh6+HU9XMV937+1VNDf4k4sNXECjxQ4B0MX/F5eWEsfIlqt4V2HMEDE/ eQ0zQbVRhf2MBJ6n6Vw6DDEUEv+4Dn9CUdYSyJPsK7/0JLO/VnKoPqvwhq+p7hZ4 JMHPWwFoMsT3Nuj15Nk3CrgDGE9C6GSyP88BTnSbgyqe9erFHXTOm80r6OfKpDVB h8/nt7iCFxlPcTLqkUoZf1ZwmlJCSD5fB9/yaAwTc3klFdkiPe0ZFODa/aLOqZrG AoYLsPMt9fntzrnXfwsTthkBxDSFiTxxxlRe1eQeRlALO2Bm5Qfn6jRGhrIraX RksscWcFWptjVlm9CDr2al7otX/RPqFjX3uiJMZfBFoYDmb49xdGaptlMCHaD6Wm XJFb4Wiu1ovERN38AT6IxXFPmPJw6SKrSmVeV5Pmn9+SHtfjAA+st0EMGhzBtW2N uZr0wwO1/EcrzaOP4So7n7IqmG3nKafibY2q5Occn/BHqvTKaik+q4b6a/vVdTtl Erp3hXlGk/6UpBLT5RYbU4p7WLGAj5r8DAyH0kI1+tcCxBKD9WVLSFzYqH9Ea59g 77QkU2lsayBSb2FkIDxzdGFmZkBzaWxrcm9hZG1hcmtldC5vcmc+iQE4BBMBAgAi BQJNlVjMAhsPBgsJCAcDAgYVCAIJCgsEFgIDAQIeAQIXgAAKCRACIkI7Z7f6JV/P B/92DrCPpqfzF6EPu1g6Mxt/39EAosKr4YwmVE5DuY+g6pR2dOtDfvkt3QxQkURB QeyaKOQNuXus4vDQi4kcmzHD3DLmc0A0wQzGOyl0a+LwdqUOtckL4SIPbEzSDP9e sOZOweGkBkSDB13KBkW4fFbDGkEcYHZyUt/jFgxflMLtnxAksR1fH0NbmZnUr1e4 L7p+QylRuXOhGLObOTU0n7KDbuZijgqKDKyV6yEXfLJDrZqzlqmoh+DJisn+53Br glDwt7p3MHR3ejyausNeodK7FJ0sY0uHUHuUOmF2xDGvHVb/jrwS5sb7k8YMuq ptRgsMLFLebgM3jrCg78g23k =D+ez -----END PGP PRIVATE KEY BLOCK----- 
This imports into my GPG without any CRC problems and with correct metadata, so it should be right. But it turns out to be passphrase-protected! Dammit! My first try to decrypt it was to take the server exhibit, write down every password given in it, and try those:
109j7IAier 2n3fh4n3o 2t31fKF5hm 2WBx5obj 34534r3f 384jdridh 3j483r87yfn38 _47JB+p1\j}[email protected](L[nZ)#W- 4B5HMiJYy0N0bbK5 4pVAW9bv 4W8IWDjInLguJD8T 83drj3984 8pz2PGGEmn3h3hGJ 8sa7dhf8a7 938ru39 9MPGCtBK abrault66 abstractapproachfillsthemindwithjoy acharlton66 achrlton66 ameeraissa66 [email protected] [email protected] bTyL5RbC cbrady66 cdigby66 dboone66 dFDrN345DSftX dQsQRighnXczcphJ dsmith66 dwallace66 dwiurhi37n EgXcn1ANYF eK5nJgfDqERQ3K96 fahu6wq4ue fwarren66 gboyle66 gtilly66 hallahaa hR6vpCxaGY HuKKtaoLLa hulluh832 J39hlF4n Je)pae]yuxeif7xi jknCRfR3yq3hbtzp k8JqM7Cijw kborunda66 kclark66 LaQXhcURAGMME3gq lmackrell66 lzielinski66 mgatewood66 nlbosm42093 nsj8jdke oh3bdc8wcn rlvrGdex RPGLdgjjveBtHpEN SD8rcicL sfa76ht7 sofas-qxsch sums-XATq86P the2Fieshaqu tkiW23GL U5f305OX Uha4zFYo v6ay080942 w732ihrw7e w8j374847dhw wefi7y4mwh wjBSGHvfEQdfh9oZ x4TiJfRE XUVYNGBgvu7fb5Hw yMrEATSQ7BsBEouV zFAvzSBUXcC0 zS08HbISvSZcB5Ex 
None of these seemed to work for me. (imposter also tried the Elcom dictionary +0-9, 6-9 characters, alphabet, lowercase.)
So then I turned to a password cracker, specifically John the Ripper (WP), whose bleeding-jumbo edition I compiled with OpenCL (so it could use my wimpy GPU, which for Bitcoin mining could do something like 50mh/s); John doesn't handle GPG natively, but it apparently does ship with a tool gpg2john to convert the passphrase hash to something it can work with, which yields:
Silk Road:$gpg$*1*668*2048*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*3*254*2*2*8*7eb669fe58701a92*6029312*ec76ddeeb2231fdb:::Silk Road ::/home/gwern/sr.asc 
I think one could also try pgpry but I didn't since I got john up and running before I saw it.
Since the server passwords failed, and I saw a variety of characters and capitalizations, I had john do bruteforce:
john --format=gpg-opencl --incremental=ASCII sr-hash 
I ran it for about a week, and finally lost my patience. I was hoping it'd be like one of the short passphrases in the server password list, which would have been bruteforced by now. I wound up ending john at
0g 9:13:13:11 0g/s 74.14p/s 74.14c/s 74.14C/s dsssii..dlshk2 
(john.log, john.rec)
Oh well. It was worth a shot. Not everything pans out.
But maybe someone with a GPU cluster or better at password cracking wants to give it a shot and reveal the passphrase? I can't pretend to be DPR after posting this, but it would still be interesting to go back and decrypt some of the messages to DPR on the SR1 forums. (Why should LE have all the snooping fun?)
* these characters also mean OCR is not very useful for transcribing crypto keys; every character has to be perfect, so since you're going to be going character-by-character anyway... One thought I had was that the right key was only maybe 5-10 edits away from the OCR version or my first hand-draft, so it should be feasible to brute-force all versions within a certain edit distance to see if their CRC is right or brute-force specific transpositions. But I don't transcribe keys nearly often enough to bother writing such a tool.
submitted by gwern to SilkRoad [link] [comments]

Log of AMA with Skycoin

boldninja Let's all give a warm welcome to @synth from SkyCoin.net and for taking the time to do this AMA
synth *hello
mike Hi Synth
jakethepanda Hey @synth
thrice.pi Hey synth
dr10 Hi
boldninja I think we can start - you guys know the drill. Give him some time to respond (no more than 2-3 questions on backlog so he can catch up)
dr10 How would you - shortly & in easy words - sum-up the advantages of SkyCoin to magazines and non-crypto people?
mgaruccio Can you explain a bit about the mesh net? Is it just an mpls network between nodes or is there something deeper going on?
michaelthecryptoguy Whassup @synth
tranzer hi synth. I have a question - are those coins that are not in circulation in any cold wallets since only a portion is currently available according to CMC? What would you say is the 1 unique feature that Skycoin has?
synth It is very difficult, because Skycoin is a very large project and already has +6 years of development. Different parts of the project have different objectives.
The cryto, coin part is about solving the problems with the existing consensus algorithms. Being able to do +300 transactions a second, transactions in seconds instead of minutes (faster than credit cards), eliminating miners, eliminating block rewards (eliminating inflation) and eliminating 51% attack and the other problems with mining.
then there are other repos and experimental projects under github.com/skycoin such as a meshnet and distributed VPN prototype, where people will be paid coins for forwarding traffic. Also prototypes of distributed social media application, with peer to peer data replication and different experimental projects. Research into immutable data structures for next generation internet. Some of them are very radical.
dr10 How does the Network consensus algorithm Obelisk work and differ from widely known algorithms like Proof of Work and Proof of Stake?
mgaruccio So how much exists today? Could I build an app on the platform if I wanted to?
mike In terms of the rate of progress, what is currently your greatest limiting factor - like funding, manpower, currently available technology?
synth
Can you explain a bit about the mesh net? Is it just an mpls network between nodes or is there something deeper going on?
It is not actually a meshnet. It is software defined networking, it is much more powerful than just meshnet. Its a new type of networking and new completely new protocol and networking namespace, independent of the existing internet.
It supports source routing, while the existing internet does hot potato routing, so never achieves optimal latencies.
It supports multi-homing, which IPv6 does not (Which is critical for when we have gigabit or terabit networking and multi-redundant bandwidth paths)
It has default oppurunistic crypto, both link layer and end to end; so everything is encrypted by default, unlike the current internet.
It has store and forward networking and will operate in Africa or even under conditions where latencies are in the minutes or hours and packet loss is excessive. Where existing protocols cannot operate reliability. It is much more robust than IPv4/IPv6 or TCP/ip
It has improved privacy. If a packet takes a route that is 10 hops, each hop only knows the previous node in the route and the next node in the route. It is not like IPv4 where each packet gives the source and destination. The privacy level is something that does not exist on the current internet.
IP addresses are replaced by public key and no one can read traffic to a destination, without knowing the private key of the public key that identifies the destination. The system does not need 3rd parties or certificate authorities. The design is a revolution.
are those coins that are not in circulation in any cold wallets since only a portion is currently available according to CMC?
The coins are locked into 100 addresses, each with 1 million coins each. And they are released sequentially.
There is a complicated locking procedure and releasing new coins requires unamious consent and a shared secret among a group of developers. Anyone in the shared secret group can block distribution of more coins (to stop the problem that killed NXT). So by design the coins were supposed to be difficult to distribut, there had to be a good reason or justification before a distribution would be approved.
mike What are the hardware requirements to operate a wireless Skywire (the name for the protocol described above) Node?
arc-over-water nxt i think is doing ok..
synth
How does the Network consensus algorithm Obelisk work and differ from widely known algorithms like Proof of Work and Proof of Stake?
PoS and PoW use miners. Miners receive new coins every block as a block reward. So miners are making money and will fight to control the network. An everyone will suffer because the newly created coins represent inflation.
Skycoin was designed to eliminate mining and eliminate the inflation. No block rewards, no new coins. And we needed to develop a new consensus algorithm to do that and there are only a few methods that work, for these constraints. The consensus algorithm is based upon Ben-Or's randomization procedure for achieving consensus in a distributed system, with some improvements for detecting adversarial or malicious nodes who are trying to prevent the consensus process.
There are white papers on skycoin.net about the specifics. I would call it "network consensus" and it uses a sort of Web of Trust (WoT), where if the people creating blocks are doing a bad job or attacking the network, then the community can get rid of them. At the same time, the people who control the network, do not have any real power to attack the network except by slowing down transactions and being annoying, so even if they become malicious the only issue is how to get rid of them and select new people.
mike Any idea when Skywire will be released and ready to test on hardware nodes (testnet or mainnet)?
mgaruccio So if there is no block reward what is the incentive to run a node?
vega What will be the actual function of Skycoin (the coin itself)? Will the coin be used as currency, as transfer of value in and between all these various developing functionalities, semi-separate projects to tie them all together or it's function will be more limited?
michaelthecryptoguy Do you have an idea on the specs of a node that would be required? In the beginning? What about with 10,000 users? (edited)
synth
nxt i think is doing ok..
There were three people that each owned 30% of the coin. One decided he wanted out and began dumping. NXT was over 150 million I think. When he started dumping, it basicly killed NXT.
Skycoin's distribution was designed to stop dumping by the founders and early people.
After Skycoin gets to 30% of the total coins distributed, there will probably a hard time lock on the remaining coins, so that a maximum of 5% of the remaining coins can be released per year. So the distribution for the other 70% of the coins will take a minimum of 14 years (and could be longer).
We cannot even sell the rest of the coins, because if we sold 10% of the total now at $5 per coin, it would be 50 million or something and we cannot spend or even use that amount of money. Not at this stage.
Ethereum spent 30 million or 70 million in their first year or two after the ICO and then nearly went bankrupt. Silicon Valley wages and offices etc. We have been very conservative and have kept costs down and kept them responsible. Now we have coins like EOS and they want to raise a billion dollars and have not produced anything yet, do not hav a blockchain and I have no idea what they would spend that money on, but they are throwing $350,000 parties in time square for marketing/PR etc...
arc-over-water what prevents you from selling? anybody can spend that amount of money?
nxt is a newer platform than sky, market value is $220 million plus $166 million, I get what you are saying but the evidence is wrong. Community is huge and active in Nxt. But you say it is killed, i dont get it?
synth
What will be the actual function of Skycoin (the coin itself)? Will the coin be used as currency, as transfer of value in and between all these various developing functionalities, semi-separate projects to tie them all together or it's function will be more limited?
Yes. Bitcoin has no purpose. An altcoin does two things - check your balance - send money to other people
Two features - check balance - send
For a coin to have value, people need to be forced to buy it to consume specific services. There has to be stuff for people to spend the coin on, that there is demand for.
So Bitcoin is really just a purely speculative asset. It generates no cashflow and its value is determined by perception or social convention.
Ideally, Skycoin would start off as a "better Bitcoin" (faster, more secure, new algorithm, simplier, etc), then over time we would build up an ecosystem and have some type of backing and tie the coin's value into the network and usebase.
The mesh netork (skywire) is good, because it gives something for people to do to get coins and it allows people to consume the coins. You can run your internet traffic through a VPN that tunnels over Skywire and maybe it will be a nominal amount (actually absurdly small amount of money), but there would be real economic activity and a real userbase and community using the coin. Not just speculation.
Later on the scope is much wider.
arc-over-water So the skycoin wallet will be a VPN for our internet usage?
synth
nxt is a newer platform than sky, market value is $220 million plus $166 million, I get what you are saying but the evidence is wrong. Community is huge and active in Nxt. But you say it is killed, i dont get it?
What I am saying, is that NXT would be a lot further along than it is now and probably around where Ethereum is, except for that mistake in the distribution and keeping it too concentrated. It set them back by years. They did not consider what the impact on the price would be, over the long term, when one of the early whales started selling off or decided he wanted out.
arc-over-water But they did the same again with IOTA, same lead dev.. Its over a $Billion
they released and let the market price distribute
synth
So the skycoin wallet will be a VPN for our internet usage?
The VPN is just one application, that uses bandwidth over Skywire. There are several things in development.
This is a BBS like 4chan, that is completely distributed, with CXO. https://github.com/skycoin/bbs
It will run over Skywire also, This is like building a whole new internet from scratch. The apps that run on it are going to specialized and privacy focused, etc GitHub skycoin/bbs Contribute to bbs development by creating an account on GitHub.
mike So Skycoin is a Proof of Resource coin where its value is actually backed by provision of a useful service, in this case private and secure networking? Are there plans to add decentralized storage and even distributed processing to it?
arc-over-water so these 100 separate million coin accounts will be 100 ICOs or how is the distribution patterned? is it written into the code or up to the devs?
rockyj !calculate
slackbot Custom Response https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1FGo3FkC3uSWXGHatPQyny2brMWjAIJsHFCR-Lhkl_m0/edit#gid=0
synth
So if there is no block reward what is the incentive to run a node?
running a consensus node does not cost anything. You can run it on a raspberry pi.
The important thing is that if the people doing consensus are doing a bad job, that the community can get rid of them and replace them. The other important thing, is that they can be audited and determined automatically if they are obeying the protocol.
the miners in skycoin are not very powerful and cannot do anything except slow down transactions. They are unable to spend other people's money without their private keys, so the consensus/mining nodes are almost irrelevent. It is not like Bitcoin where the miners can hold the network hostage or act selfishly (driving up the transactions fees for their own personal benefit and delaying any innovations that would improve bitcoin for everyone, etc).
So Skycoin is a Proof of Resource coin where its value is actually backed by provision of a useful service, in this case private and secure networking? Are there plans to add decentralized storage and even distributed processing to it?
We have decentralized storage, which is called CXO. But only the bandwidth is monetized by Skywire. We do not nickle and dime and try to attach a coin cost to every API call. Everything that should be free is free. So its a different philosphy.
On top of CXO we also have distributed social media applications (simmilar to Steemit)
CXO is very similar to IFPS, but simplier and designed for our internal infrastructure and with our crypto standards, instead of being a mismash.
mike Is it possible for Skycoin to choose the best paths and route around bad or slow nodes as damage to the network, in effect reducing their impact on consensus?
looks like you answered the question above while I was typing...
tranzer How many tx/s can skycoin handle? What are block times?
thrice.pi 300 right? ^
arc-over-water on your website it says you will have a NON- Turing complete lisp language?
synth
so these 100 separate million coin accounts will be 100 ICOs or how is the distribution patterned? is it written into the code or up to the devs?
We will have a distribution page, up on the website soon. Its complicated.
Skywire, is designed to pull coins out of circuation, through a sort of tithe on network activity and it does automatic buy backs effectively. So the distribution will actually peak and then decline. But one distribution is from the locked coins, and the locked coins are freed, then circulate, then end up at the foundation (from the skywire tithe are pulled out of circulation), but still count towards the free float.
The coin holders also receive a coinhour dividend and there will be a market rate conversion between coin hours and Skycoins and coinhours are the actual currency for the Skywire network. If you do not have enough coin hours, then you sell Skycoin for CoinHour at the market rate, to purchase bandwidth; but if you have a lot of coins then you have enough coin hours for downloading movies or VPN or whatever you are doing and it is essentially free.
So there is a dual level economic structure. Both with coin buybacks to pull coins out of circulation and with a dividend or incentive to encourage users to hold the coin if they are using the network.
arc-over-water so there will be two currencies, holding one reserves the other
synth
Is it possible for Skycoin to choose the best paths and route around bad or slow nodes as damage to the network
Yes. This is very important.
The person dialing a connection, chooses the path of the connection!
You can choose the lowest latency path for video games or Skype, and choose highest throughput paths for video downloads etc. Or can choose paths through specific nodes or facilities or countries, for security concerns and to minimize the number of points that the traffic could be intercepted at.
mike Will Skycoin still have the node subsidy plan for setting up and registering the mesh nodes like originally planned?
dr10 When do you plan to be able to present your planned technology and services to the masses? When can they use what you try do accomplish?
synth
on your website it says you will have a NON- Turing complete lisp language?
That is probably an error. LOL. We will have a new website soon.
There is no scripting language on the skycoin blockchain. Each transaction is constant time (for efficiency and security and to achieve the highest transaction rate and to keep the coin simple).
However, we have a language called CX in development, which is a next generation language that is beyond "smart contracts" and the toy things on ethereum. It uses immutable datastructures and is something completely new. Most of the skycoin "smart contracts" will probably be off blockchain or in personal blockchains and we do not want to shove all the data onto the main chain, because forcing everyone to download everyone one elses contracts it the world is just spamming the blockchain to death. There are better ways to do it.
Will Skycoin still have the node subsidy plan for setting up and registering the mesh nodes like originally planned?
Yes. We are going to get from 20% to 30% distributno of the coins, through network incentives for people running Skywire nodes, consensus nodes and services.
I think this is going to be massive for marketing. And it is the best way to get the coins out to the users, instead of all the coins being held by whales
samuelvihollandia I read how you suggest Skycoin could be used for VPN connections, is this the largest use case you see?
arc-over-water Maidsafe has been working on the redesign of the net for about ten years, what are you doing the same and what different?
synth
I read how you suggest Skycoin could be used for VPN connections, is this the largest use case you see?
No. This is just something easy, that we have working. Its not the largest applicatoin at all.
80% of internet traffic right now is bitorrent and the bitorrent sites are being systematically shutdown and driven off the internet. They wont go away, but will jut go underground. What.cd (largest music tracker, with 800k people) was just shut down, bakabt (largest anime tracker) has gone closed registration, Nyantorrent etc...
User communities of millions of people will be migrating from the clearnet (the existing corporate shit-net) to the "new internet". We are going to see people migrating by the millions, whole user communities of millions of people.
arc-over-water Are you a corporation or foundation or charity? Registered? I am not sure i have seen anything about who you are? What is the dev team size? Background? - Maidsafe is open and clear so is IOTA and Stellar etc. Can you let us know who you and your team are? Especially you are talking about 15 year and up obligations..
techbytes Do we need to hold skycoin to run Skywire nodes or consensus nodes like masternodes from other coins?
synth
Maidsafe has been working on the redesign of the net for about ten years, what are you doing the same and what different?
Maidsafe is in version 2 or 3. Maidsafe will not have a real coin until version 9. Each version takes them about two or three years. Maidsafe will not be "done" or ready for atleast 18 years at this rate.
Skycoin has been in development for ~6 years and the meshnet for 4 years and it will be finished in a few months. To the poin that people can start using it.
Skycoin is similar to maidsafe in the objective, but has a different approach and architecture and primitives. We did not try to do everything, but focused on a smaller, tractable core and got that done.
There will be multiple projects in this space, but few teams are able to plan on the time horizon necisary for building a new internet or able to design each of the components of a system this large, or figure out how to do it so that it is useful at each stage of construction of a project that may take a decade. (edited)
mike Can you see a way for Ark and Skycoin to build on each other in a synergistic manner? I'm all for not reinventing the wheel, especially when it looks like it will be replaced with antigravity like Skycoin.
I see Skycoin as essentially replacing TCP/IP and providing mesh network type functionality at the hardware level, Ark would run on top of it as a top level application layer.
arc-over-water are you up to date on Maidsafe, they are nearly out of Alpha and its more like release early next year? But that being said, Maidsafe says once it is released it is like a virus or AI type, so does Tau Chain, and also Autonomic by HunterMinerCrafter, are we heading towards AI with Maid, Sky Tau and Autonomic?
dr10 smartbridge now! :kappa:
mike So Skycoin would act as a sort of global decentralized cloud server to build on top of.
To communicate, it is more like sharing encrypted files to selected recipients than it is sending messages or hosting sites on a specific server.
synth
Are you a corporation or foundation or charity? Registered? I am not sure i have seen anything about who you are? What is the dev team size? Background?
I think there are over ~60 people who have worked on Skycoin or have made major contributions. Its really a project from the darknet.
Many of the contributors are anonymous. Some of them have security clearances and were in the military industrial complex and one of them worked at the San Diego Naval Defence Research Lab and a lot of the idea for the networking protocols came out of public sector academic researched, funded from there.
We also have a lot of very very early Bitcoin people, hardcore crypto people that predate Bitcoin and an Ethereum core developer, etc..
On the Chinese side we have an early investor in Alibaba and telecom investor. And are doing pilot with china aviation group (owns four publicly traded airline companies) and apparently now Sinopec (which is 2nd largest publicly traded corporation in world).
Then we have people who are part of israeli and US intelligence and are probably doing some sort of money laundering or phychological operations background, who just showed up for some reason. This group seems very interested in the "applications" of these coins and how to improve tranaction privacy and the specifics of the CoinJoin protocol implementation. We got a lot of advice from people experienced in forensic accounting and what they wanted to see and where they felt Bitcoin was deficient and where it leaked metadata.
Then a bunch of PHD level people doing research into distributed database consensus algorithms and another group doing programming language research.
Then a lot of people from the deep darknet, anon, frog twitter and cipher punks and bitorrent communities. (really should be listed as two seperate groups). And people from the Russian darknet community. We have like eight Ivans. (edited)
I see Skycoin as essentially replacing TCP/IP and providing mesh network type functionality at the hardware level, Ark would run on top of it as a top level application layer.
Yes. The key functionality is two things - connecting to people by public key (networking) - distributing self validating, immutble data peer to peer (transactions, blocks etc... content addressible storage)
And you can build almost anything on those two building blocks. The whole internet will eventually be rewritten on top of those primitives and it will replace many of the existing protocols.
arc-over-water Who is the entity that is funding this? I think you have done 2 ICOs? How much did you receive? The first was 10c and the second was @ 50c per coin, released 6 million, is that correct?
samuelvihollandia Are you planning to enter a different exchange market soon?
arc-over-water Have you personally been in Sky from the start? What members have? Who allocates the ICO money etc... I hope you understand that decentralization with investment is a two edged sword, we invest in people but we cannot know these people.... So... we question.. (edited)
thrice.pi with all these outside parties that helped to build skycoin and bring it where it is today who are the main core team who will help to keep all these cool features running. Will these outside parties be recruited for the long haul?
synth
Who is the entity that is funding this? I think you have done 2 ICOs? How much did you receive? The first was 10c and the second was @ 50c per coin, released 6 million, is that correct?
The people who funded the project for the first four years, were early bitcoin and deep crypto people; who were unhappy with the fact that Bitcoin and the other alts did not seem concerned about the core issues at all. They gave us over 1200 bitcoin I think, over several years and did not ask for anything in return.
The early Skycoin devs were doing academic research, architecture and new algorithms. Prototyping and simulation. The later stage people were more project managers and doing implementation.
We did four ICOs for small amounts, to fund development and to allow developers working on the project to buy in. The first ICO I remember was at $0.10 per coin and the price now is about $4.00 per coin, so its up ~35x or 40x, but when you consider the Bitcoin price going from $100 to $3000, the increase has not been so much. lol (edited)
arc-over-water With the price up 35x in about 1 year, is it not now time to cool the run up and release another ICO? At what amount of coins released and what procedure?
mike Would Intel Edison or Joule, or Samsung Artik 10 work well as a Skywire wireless node? They have 2 Gb-8 Gb RAM, 8-64 Gg eMMC storage, 802.11n wireless, bluetooth, and some with Zigbee?
synth
Have you personally been in Sky from the start? What members have? Who allocates the ICO money etc... I hope you understand that decentralization with investment is a two edged sword, we invest in people but we cannot know these people.... So... we question.
I think there wer three different groups that merged together in first three years, that had similar objectives. Because the code was in different language. There was python, C code and then eventually golang and the golang code became the basis for the current codebase.
The way the coin allocations work, is that it requires unamimious consent for releasing coins and it has to be for a specific, ear marked purpose and can be blocked by any of the devs.
Then there is a pool of coins in bitcoin for various project managers to allocate. And that is an operational fund for paying developers, contractors, marketing etc. Then different people have different responsibilities.
Then we also have corporate funding and sponsorship and some companies paying our full time devs etc, which helps a lot.
arc-over-water Silicon Valley (TV SHOW) recently had their decentralized web running on a network or refrigerators? So i would guess, smart phones, smart gadgets? Home gadgets etc could add services and receive rewards from Sky?
mike best would be a totally open source and publicly audited manufactured system on a chip for the nodes to prevent any backdoors. Even chip designers now don't really know what they're putting into the chips since they just drag and drop black boxes known as IP cores into the ASIC designs.
synth
With the price up 35x in about 1 year, is it not now time to cool the run up and release another ICO? At what amount of coins released and what procedure?
I think the Skycoin price has been doubling every 40 days, for as long as I can remember. However, it will still be years before it is in the top 20, its still a long way to climb. It took bitcoin years to go from 0 to $1, even though it was growing at 1% per day the whole time for six years.
best would be a totally open source and publicly audited manufactured system on a chip for the nodes to prevent any backdoors.
we are going to use arm
arc-over-water IOTA is also working on their own hardware for nodes etc, Trinary asset is JINN
synth all intel and AMD systems have remote management engine backdoors. So they are not safe for storing large amounts of coins.
We also have alpine linux and special version of linux, that is 6 MB and has everything that is needed for running our toolchain. It will not have any binary blobs in the kernel or anything that we cant compile from source. It does not have systemd and does not have gli, but uses musl. And does not have openssl.
mike so looks like the Samsung Artik 5 and 10 can run it no problem, they're ARM based. 25x35x4mm package for the Artik 10, Artik 5 is smaller, less powerful but has 2 separate antenna ports, nice for mesh networking with an omni and a directional antenna.
earlyarkinvestor how does Ark compare to Lisk?
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earlyarkinvestor isn't Lisk trying to achieve interoperability between blockchains as well
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mike nice! looks like an ARM based server rack
let me know if you need any help with it, see you're on solidworks, which I run as well.
synth this is the skycoin cluster; it has 8 CPU boards; 4 cores per CPU, 2 GB of ram per CPU and 64 bit ARM processor. Only one program will run on each individual board, so there is compartmentalization and a physical gap so that compromising one process on a system does no allow all other processes on the system to be compromised
mike looks like 2 ethernet ports per board.
synth and the hardware does not have the qualcom backdoors and is actually chinese equipment; and the backdoors are normally at the kernel level because they are not at hardware backdoors yet
lol
mike do they have SATA ports, maybe M.2 for storage?
synth and we will hav an ARM openwrt router eventually too
this model does not have SATA, but we have a model with SATA; you could hook up 16 2 TB drives, lol and download half the piratebay to your cluster (edited)
the skycoin infrastructure is cluster based and designed for running across +300 computers, with one "node" deployed per computer. Eithe a CXO storage node, or a skywire SDN/meshnet node, or a VPN end point node or a consensus network, or skycoin node, etc. We have multiple node/application types.
so this is a "personal cloud' by itself
its not like StoreJ where you have other people storing your stuff; you are going to have ~5 clusters and 300 computers and can store your own files, on your own internet, on your own hardware. You do not need to go outside of your own network.
mike Have thought it'd be nice to have a board with an array of M.2 sockets to run SSD arrays without all the cables, have the busses shielded in circuit board.
synth yes, i think there will be m.2 eventually
these actually use a microSSD for storage, and its 48MB/s
mike any idea on the pricing on your ARM boards in quantity? We are looking at Intel for Bitseed V3, but ARM would be good to stay with, especially using your boards if there is SATA.
arc-over-water Do you have a general idea of usable functions to be released next in what order? The first release was the Coin and wallet, then the ICOs and can you give a general future with dates if you can
synth the boards are $30 each and the memory for solid state, is actually more than the the cost of the CPU/RAM/board now. Which is sort of insane.
mike so you have microSSD, what's maximum size? we shipping 1with Tb hard drives right now
synth Bitseed mike is going to help with this; so we can pool the boards and do a custom PCB
mike yes, that's where we see the price jumps, is in RAM and eMMC costs.
and it's hard to find low cost boards with SATA
synth try the orange pi
the price goes up 30% for SATA
mike yes, very nice specs.
synth eventually, we will make one that has custom PCB and is a pluggable blade server, I think.
mike I like the Samsung Artiks for the tiny form factor for drone routers, cubesat/picosat possibilities.
but like the fact that you are controlling much deeper down the supply chain with your boards.
synth we only need ram, CPU, then microSD slot; and that is it. so the wifi and all this other stuff is just crap and its junk. We only have communication, storage and computation. So should be minimialist.
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Quarkchain - In depth analysis Project & Team

Introduction
QuarkChain is a new blockchain project currently in the testnet phase. They are building highly scalable and secure blockchain and aims to handle up to one million transactions per second using a two-layered blockchain system. By using the EVM they will also support smart contracts and make developers able to deploy dApps originally built on Ethereum over to the QuarkChain blockchain when Mainnet is live in Q4 2018.
By reaching 1 M transactions per second, QuarkChain will surpass a lot of major blockchains in terms of speed. Bitcoin do 3–4 tps and Ethereum around 10–12 tps. This is a huge difference and will set those two blockchains under a pressure. Bitcoin are working on Lightning Network, and Ethereum on Sharding. Are they finishing it in time? That’s the question.
Team + Advisors introduction
Qi Zhou achieved 10M tps as a member of the real time infrastructure team at Facebook Expert in scalability and was a key developer in achieving 10m IOPS with clustering for EMC 5+ years as a software engineer. Short stints with key roles at Facebook (1 year), Dell EMC (2.5 years), Google (9 months) and Ratrix Technologies (10 months). PHD from Georgia institute of Technology
Zhaouang has 6+ years experience as a system backend engineer working on large complex distributed systems Key roles at Facebook (1 year), Instagram (4 months), Google (5 years) PHD and Masters degree in Computer Science and Engineering, University of Michigan
Professor at Georgia Institute of Technology (Combined 7 years, 10 months) Previously CTO and Co Founder of Ratrix Technologies (6 years, 5 months)
Vice Chairman in Education at Xi’an Jiaotong University, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology Co-founder of Demo++ (Tech Incubator) Yaodong has authorized 50+ papers in peer reviewed journals and has over 600 citations in his name.
Wencen has been a Assistant Professor at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (4 years and 6 months). Has a MSC and PHD in Electrical and Computer Engineering Operations Team
Anturine has 6+ years experience within finance and technology at Wall Street and Silicon Valley Key Roles as Lead Platform Analytics at Wish, Business Development and Marketing at Beepi, Consumer Marketing and Analytics at LinkedIn Partners and Investors
Arun is a University Distinguished Professor emeritus in the Department of Electrical Engineering at Virginia Tech Fellow of National Academy of Engineering, USA
Managing Director of Walden International (Global venture capital firm) Previously Chief Engineer Sun Microsystems who co-led the ZFS team, also Former President of DSSD/EMC (Dell)
Mike is a PhD Physicist with 100+ publications Founder of Cloundant which was acquired by IBM in 2014
Kevin is a serial investor in blockchain companies
Leo is a recognised cryptocurrency fund manager who invested in blockchain projects. He is an Angel investor in NEO with over 17 years of field experience in mobile internet in China
Cybersecurity expert who discovered serious vulnerabilities in Linux, Android and TCP/IP Assistant Professor at University of California Riverside
Technology explained
QuarkChain is using sharding to provide a high capacity P2P transactional system. The blockchain is built with two main layers — a sharding layer, which makes it possible with high throughput by effectively distributing data, and a Root layer, which serves to confirm the blocks of the sharding layer.
QuarkChain aims to satisfy the tradeoff between the three pillars of a blockchain — decentralization, security, and scalability. I am explaining more about the technology below.
Two-layered blockchains
The QuarkChain consists of two layers of blockchains. We apply elastic sharding blockchains (shards) as the first layer, and a root blockchain that confirms the blocks from the shards as the second layer.
Cross-shard transactions
Cross-shard transactions can be issued at any time, and confirmed in minutes. The throughput of cross-shard transactions increases linearly as the number of shards increases.
Market driven collaborative mining
We designed a game theoretic framework for incentives, where hash powers are incentivized to distribute evenly among shards. There are at least 50% of overall hash power allocated to the root chain to prevent double spending attack.
Simple account management
There is only one account needed for all shards. All cryptocurrencies from different shards are stored in one smart wallet.
Horizontal scalability
Because a super-full node can be extremely expensive when TPS goes high, we allow multiple honest nodes forming a cluster running as a super-full node.
Prototype and testnet
QuarkChain has a finished prototype and has runned a live testnet demo on an AMA with the YouTube channel “Decentralized Chain” where they had five nodes and a speed of more than 1300 transactions per second. That’s very impressive and beats most of the competitors already. But they are not stopping there. With more nodes coming up and improvement of the product they aim to reach incredible 1 M transactions per second. No blockchains on the market right now is not even close to those numbers. Even EOS which launches their Mainnet in June has 10 times less than QuarkChain in terms of speed with its 100 000 tps.
The wallet they demonstrated looks very user friendly already at this point and if you have used other blockchains before you will easily understand this wallet.
website!
github!
telegram!
medium!
facebook!
twitter!
Abraham Kemmeren
submitted by Abrahamquarkchain to u/Abrahamquarkchain [link] [comments]

LinuxCoin PXE cluster demo. Raspberry Pi 4 Bitcoin Mining For 24 Hours! - YouTube How to mine Bitcoin Using Linux [2019] - YouTube How To Mine Bitcoin On PC, Mac, Or Linux - YouTube How to make a Raspberry Pi Bitcoin Mining Rig

linux solo-mining. share improve this question follow asked Aug 20 '15 at 13:48. user28015 user28015. 11 2 2 bronze badges. Most likely this will cost you more in electricity than you'll earn. GPU and CPU mining both has gone the way of the dodo, due to the enhanced performance of ASICs. Definitely check the costs before going ahead! – Murch ♦ Aug 20 '15 at 14:00. Cluster nodes ... This has happened already. I wrote about two incidents of supercomputers being used to mine Bitcoin and Dogecoin in the spring of 2014: Subverting computing research for fool's gold. Bitcoin A National Science Foundation researcher misused super... Mining Bitcoin with your CPU. I really wanted to try mining and I didn’t care if it would cost me more than I would make in Bitcoin, so I looked around and stumbled across a bunch of different programs for mining. The one I found for using your CPU was funnily enough one named cpuminer. Now on it’s own it’s not going to do a lot, but actually we’ll have to hook it up to a mining pool ... Es gibt Mining-Software für Mac, Windows und Linux. Schritt #6: Ist Bitcoin Mining in Ihrem Land legal? Vergewissern Sie sich! In den MEISTEN Ländern stellt das kein großes Problem dar. Fragen Sie einen örtlichen Anwalt um weitere Unterstützung bei der Bestimmung der Rechtmäßigkeit des Bitcoin-Mining und der steuerlichen Auswirkungen der Tätigkeit. Wie andere Unternehmen auch, können ... BTCMiner is an Open Source Bitcoin Miner for ZTEX USB-FPGA Modules 1.15. These FPGA Boards contain an USB interface which is used for communication and programming (i.e. no JTAG programmer is required) and allows to build low cost FPGA clusters using standard components like USB hubs. The software runs on Linux and Windows. Features. Supported FPGA Boards: Spartan 6 USB-FPGA Module 1.15b with ...

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LinuxCoin PXE cluster demo.

Buy Raspberry Pi 4 Model B 4GB: https://amzn.to/2tlBfGW How to Setup a Raspberry Pi 4 Bitcoin Mining Rig w/ Bitmain AntMiner U3: https://youtu.be/dPWTSytzN7g... In this video, I'm going to show you how to start mining Bitcoin on Linux/Debian based operating systems. https://bitcoinminingsoftware2019.com/bitcoin-minin... insta - csp_96 #csp #linuxforce # apt-get update # apt-get install libcurl4-openssl-dev git build-essential # apt-get install autotools-dev autoconf libcurl3... Setting up a High Performance Cluster with PelicanHPC - Duration: 11:21. ... Linux bitcoin mining rig Radeon 5850 - Duration: 2:42. Philip Thrasher 15,883 views. 2:42. Pxe Boot Server Setup on ... BitCoin mining on Ubuntu using specialized ASIC procesors and Ubuntu software such as: CGMiner, BFGMiner, EasyMiner https://linuxhint.com/best-usb-bitcoin-mi...

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